What is the Difference Between Science and Social Science?

The difference between science and social science is that science is the knowledge of the physical aspects of the world, its phenomena, and its applications through general laws, research, and observations. In contrast, social science deals with human society and behavior. And also explains its political and economic aspects.

“An investment in knowledge pays the best interest.” This very laudable statement by Benjamin Franklin contains a great truth. Knowledge is wise to deal with any problem or situation, and, at the same time, it is capable of creating and destroying life.

It is essential to promote personal growth and development. It has a lot of power and is called power. Science and social sciences are two of the currents that have been derived from the total area of ​​knowledge.

Comparison table between science and social science

Comparison Parameter


Social Science

Business relationship

It deals with aspects of the physical world, its applications and related phenomena.

It deals with human behavior patterns, relationships, and human society.


The physical sciences and the life sciences are objective.

The social sciences are subjective.


It includes physical sciences, life sciences (or biological sciences), and social sciences, which are further divided into substreams.

It includes subjects such as psychology, philosophy, anthropology, economics, political science, civics, history, and geography.


The experiments, observations and investigations in various areas lead to the framing of laws, theories and principles of the different scientific phenomena.

The method mainly includes surveys, interviews and case studies that involve much less quantitative data handling compared to qualitative.

Data accuracy and validity

Data collected in physical and biological sciences is more accurate as it is mostly based on inanimate objects or nearly similar test subjects.

The precision and validity of the data are not very high in the case of the social sciences since the behaviour patterns in the case of human being are very diverse.


Observations and the conduct of experiments in the physical and biological sciences are performed in a controlled environment.

Achieving a controlled environment becomes very difficult as human behavior changes when a person is aware of being watched.


A person interested in the physical or life sciences can choose a career as a researcher, doctor, engineer, biologist, geologist, chemist, physicist, astronomer, rocket scientist, etc.

A person interested in the social sciences can pursue a career as a lawyer, linguist, historian, psychologist, geographer, etc.

What is Science?

Science is a general term used to describe the systematic study and real-world applications of the physical and natural world’s attributes, structure, and phenomena, which may be based on general laws and principles, experimentation, and research.

Science itself is subcategorized into “physical science,” “social science,” and “biological science.” “Physical science” consists of the subjects: physics, chemistry, astronomy, earth sciences, etc. “Biological science,” also called “science of life,” branches out into zoology and botany on a broader scale.

Physical science deals with the study of inanimate objects and related phenomena and gathers information about the universe in the form of theories and predictions. On the other hand, biological science covers living organisms and their life processes.

Both fields, i.e., life and physical sciences, are objective and require a lot of instrument-based experiments and observations, in contrast to social sciences, which lack physical equipment-based requirements.

What is social science?

Social science is the branch of science that deals with human behavior and society and is a subjective science. Psychology, human behavior, anthropology, political science, civics, economics, philosophy, history, and geography. It is said that the social sciences began to evolve from the Age of Enlightenment after 1650, which experienced a revolution in the subject of natural philosophy.

Unlike other fields of science, employing a highly scientific methodology in the study of social sciences becomes difficult because human behavior changes when a person is aware of being observed. Therefore, it isn’t easy to achieve a controlled adjustment during observations.

The social sciences recruit qualitative and quantitative methods such as social surveys, interviews, and case studies but have much smaller quantitative data than physical science. Likewise, the validity and precision of any data are less in the case of the social sciences because it focuses its observations mainly on human beings, who are very diverse.

Main Difference Between Science and Social Science

  1. Science, in general, deals with the knowledge, study, and applications of the physical and natural world. Social sciences are the branch of science that specifically involves human interaction and behavior.
  2. The physical and life sciences are objective, while on the other hand, the social sciences are highly subjective and have little to do with quantitative aspects.
  3. Data from the social sciences tend to be more error-prone than the physical and life sciences, as the former involves the human observation that is subject to change with change in surroundings or surroundings. At the same time, the second has a controlled environment and is, therefore, more accurate in terms of data.
  4. Science is divided into physical, biological, and social sciences with their subdivisions, including physics, chemistry, astronomy, zoology, botany, etc. (for physical and biological sciences). The social sciences consist of psychology, political science, economics, history, and geography.
  5. The physical and biological sciences always use scientific methods for all experiments and observations. The social sciences may or may not involve scientific methods and are more inclined towards surveys and interviews.
  6. Career opportunities include physicist, chemist, geologist, researcher, rocket scientist, astronomer, etc., for physical sciences; doctor, zoologist, botanist, bioengineer, researcher, etc. for life sciences; and historian, psychologist, geographer, linguist, lawyer, etc. for the social sciences.


Science is a constantly evolving subject and remains the backbone of our society. There was a time when a man could not think that it was possible to communicate beyond a certain distance, and today, scientists have reached out and explored the universe far beyond our Milky Way galaxy. Psychiatrists can understand a person’s mental health condition and provide the help needed immediately to restore it to normal. All this is a gift of science to humanity and has profoundly improved our living conditions and persists in maintaining the sustainability of many species alive today.

The main objective of science is to delve into natural phenomena and use them to better society and address the problems that concern them. There has been remarkable progress in this field, especially in the current times, and we will continue to do so relentlessly.

Courtesy: Queens College of Vocational Education, Australia

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