Australia, the mainland country, has one of the lowest levels of population density per square kilometre on the planet. It is a vast country of exuberant nature, a thriving economy, cultural diversity and solid democratic values.
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Australia has a geographical extension of 8 million square kilometres. It is the sixth-largest country in the world and the largest populated island. Along with New Zealand, New Guinea, and several archipelagos, Australia makes up the island continent of Oceania.
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Immigrate to Australia
Located in the southern hemisphere between the Indian and Pacific oceans, southeast of Asia, Australia is surrounded by several seas that extend as arms of the two great oceans mentioned above: to the northwest is the Timor Sea, and to the north, the Sea of Arafura and the Torres Strait, to the northeast the Coral Sea and the southeast the Tasman Sea.
Geographical Limits of Australia
Australia geographically borders the following countries: Indonesia, East Timor and Papua New Guinea to the north; the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, and the French dependency of New Caledonia to the northeast; and New Zealand to the southeast.
Located on one of the oldest continental shelves in the world, Australia has few indented coastlines, whose only major geographical features are the Cape York Peninsula and the Gulf of Carpentaria in the northeast of the country.
The Australian mountain range extends along the eastern coast, and its highest point is Mount Kosciusko (2,234 m.).
The country’s centre is made up of two immense plains, and the west is a plateau from 200 to 600 meters high, interrupted by some mountains (Montes MacDonnel and Musgrave).
In Australia, the distances are immense.
The Australian surface extends 4,000 kilometres from east to west and 3,700 kilometres from north to south. Flying from Sydney, located in the country’s southeast, to Perth, in the southwest, takes 5 hours.
Aspects of Life in Australia
On the following pages, we describe other aspects of life in Australia. Important data when deciding to emigrate to Australia:
- Territorial Political Division
- Australian Symbols
- Type Of Government
- Laws And Rights
- Economy And Standard Of Living
- Currency And Banks
- Health And Other Public Services
- Personal Security
- Cultural And Social Life
Australia is made up of six states and two self-governing territories. The Australian Capital Territory was created in New South Wales in 1911 as the site for the national capital, Canberra.
Political-territorial Division of Australia
Victoria is the smallest of the inland states but the second-most populous. Its capital, Melbourne, is the second-largest city in Australia.
Queensland stretches from the tropical forests of Cape York to the temperate zone. The Great Barrier Reef borders its northeast coast.
The capital of Queensland is Brisbane, served by three airports (Brisbane, Cairns and Townsville).
State of South Australia
The State of South Australia (South Australia), created by a private colonization commission, is famous for its Adelaide Festival, its capital, held every two years and is an international cultural event.
State of Western Australia
The State of Western Australia (Western Australia) is roughly the size of Western Europe. It is estimated that 79% of the State’s population, of 1.85 million inhabitants, lives in its current capital, Perth.
Separated from the mainland by the waters of the Bass Strait, Tasmania and its many accompanying islands form the smallest Australian State. Hobart, the capital, is the destination for the exceptional classic blue water regatta held annually, the Sydney-Hobart Yacht Race.
Australian Northern Territory
Northern Territory (Territory of the North) has more than twice the surface of France but only has a population of fewer than 250 thousand inhabitants. Darwin is the capital, and Alice Springs is the main city in the territory’s interior.
Division by states and territories in Australia
(Inhabitants in millions)
Update to September 2020
Area in km2
The capital city is Canberra, located in the Australian Capital Territory, established within the state of New South Wales, and has 426 thousand inhabitants.
It houses the most important national institutions, including the Federal Parliament, the National Library, the National Gallery, the Supreme Court and the War Museum. For 2020, it heads the list of cities with the best quality of life index (with 208.67 points).
Main Cities in Australia
Sydney, the capital of New South Wales, is the largest city in Australia and the most populous, with 5.3 million inhabitants. Sydney was the first place of European settlement in Australia.
The city has two of the most important Australian icons: the famous Opera House and the Harbor Bridge, among many other attractions. Its airport is the main gateway to the country.
Melbourne, with approximately 5 million 78 thousand inhabitants, is Victoria’s capital, the smallest and most densely populated state.
Brisbane, the capital of Queensland, is the third-most populous city, with 1 million 52 thousand inhabitants.
Below is a description of each of the Australian states and territories. Very useful information when deciding to emigrate to Australia:
- New South Wales
- South Australia (South Australia)
- Western Australia (Western Australia)
New South Wales
New South Wales (NSW), known as the ‘First State’ or the ‘Leading State,’ has its catchphrase: ‘Newly Risen, How Brilliantly It Stands Out.’
Located on the east coast of Australia, it borders the north with Queensland, the South with Victoria, the West with South Australia, and the East with the Tasman Sea. Its total area is 809,444 km2 (the fifth largest).
The capital is Sydney, on the banks of Jackson Bay to the southeast. It is Australia’s oldest and largest city and its first gateway.
At the same time, the Australian financial and corporate centre. It stands out for its multi-culturalism, which attracts so many immigrants.
Several icons identify Sydney: The Opera House, one of the most notable works of contemporary architecture and cultural emblem of the 20th century, the Harbor Bridge, Bondi Beach and the Cricket Ground.
In addition, three main coastal cities stand out: Newcastle, Gosford and Wollongong; and Albury, Broken Hill, Dubbo, Tamworth, Armidale, Lismore, Nowra, Griffith, Leeton, Wagga Wagga, Goulburn and Coffs Harbor are mentioned for their importance.
It is the most populous entity in Australia and its capital.
The third-largest urban agglomeration in the world. For the last census, in 2016, the population was 8.13 million (Australian Bureau of Statistics figure), the third-largest population growth of all Australian states and territories, after Queensland and Victoria.
Also, the first for the largest number of immigrants welcomed.
The capital registers 5,312,163 inhabitants (65% of the state).
However, the population density of the agricultural plains is much lower than that of the coast, while the arid plains of the extreme northwest are devoid of inhabitants.
A relevant ethnic diversity is observed in the population of Sydney. About half were born abroad, and – apart from English – 30% of foreigners settled in its territory speak their native languages.
The climate is warm and temperate, sunny almost all year.
It does not reach intense hot or cold temperatures, and the rains are not excessive.
There are climatic variations in its territory: the coast, cool temperate in the extreme South and almost subtropical in the limits with Queensland; while in Sydney, the weather is pleasant, especially from March to April and from October to November; but in summer it can reach 40° C with excessive humidity.
Between October and March, due to heavy rains, the temperature drops. In general, winters are moderately cold.
Industrialization and Urbanism
Due to its great industrialization and urban planning, its services appear among the best in the world, particularly in business and finance, as well as information and communication technology. Also, mineral production, agriculture and manufacturing are key.
At the same time, new industries are developing, such as biotechnology and aquaculture. Coal and its related products constitute an important export of the state. Tourism has become a great source of income and growth.
Likewise, there is a boom in the media, and both television and film companies represent half of that industry in the country.
Home to four national parks?
As part of the larger Australian Alps National Parks and Reserves. Also, several of Australia’s World Natural and Cultural Heritage Sites:
- The Willandra Lakes Region is of enormous archaeological value;
- the Lord Howe group of islands, an archipelago of oceanic islands; the Gondwana Moist Forests;
- the Blue Mountains Region, with ancient rock formations, caves and conservation reserves, characterized by its abundant fauna;
- the Wet Tropics of Queensland;
- and the Sydney Opera House.
Its wine areas, beaches, and magnificent coastal and rural landscapes are admired, apart from the Snowy Mountains and some old prisons. In the north, typical folk music is cultivated, of aboriginal origin and with traditional instruments.
The “home of country music” and the National Equine Capital of Australia are in this state. Being the quintessential Australian cultural centre, most museums, concert halls, theatres, art galleries and other cultural institutions have been established in New South Wales, preferably in its capital, where festivals are also held—recognized throughout the world, as well as sporting events of national and international prestige.
Additional Significant Facts About New South Wales
The state capital has hosted the 1938 Commonwealth Games, the 2000 Sydney Olympics, and the 2003 Rugby World Cup final, among others.
It is considered the most expensive city in Australia, and in 2008 it topped the list of the ten cities with the best quality of life in the world. As of September 2020, Sydney was ranked 35th on the quality of life index.
Sydney continues to appear on lists of the best cities for travellers worldwide. International travel publications have repeatedly chosen it as the best city for travellers. It also tops the list of the main cities with the best restaurants in the world. Sydney alone contributes nearly a quarter of Australia’s gross domestic product.
The emblematic animal of New South Wales is the platypus, a small marsupial, and the state flower, the “waratah.”
“Bold but faithful” is the slogan of the state of Queensland. Also known as the “Sunshine State” and the “Dauntless State,” it occupies the second position, due to its total area of 1,852,642 km2, among the Australian states. Located to the Northwest of the country, its North points towards New Guinea; the East adjoins the Pacific Ocean; the West, with the Northern Territory; the Southwest, with South Australia; and the South, with New South Wales. The only one with a unicameral parliament.
Immigrate to Australia – Queensland, Australian State
Brisbane is the capital and third-largest city in Australia. It is famous for its relaxed and friendly outdoor lifestyle and is Queensland’s largest commercial, industrial, educational, medical, transport and cultural centre.
Other important cities are:
- Gold Coast
- Hervey Bay
Third in Population Among Australian States
The last census of 2016 registered 5.13 million inhabitants, with 2.51 million people in its capital. (The percentages remain). It is in the first position due to its great population growth, in the second fastest-growing, behind Western Australia, and fourth for the largest percentage gain in population growth.
It has the lowest unemployment rates in the nation. It has become a popular destination for internal and foreign migration; its policy tends toward fewer refugees and more skilled immigrants. In this regard, it is placed in third place for the number of immigrants welcomed.
Key Industries In Queensland
Its key industries are the following: agriculture, mining, tourism, defence, marine, environmental and mining technology and services, as well as renewable and alternative fuels.
There are also petrochemical, metallurgical, mechanical construction, food and iron and steel industries. It exports animal hides and skins, coal and metals.
Depending on the temperature and humidity, five different types of climate are assigned to it, which are reduced into two periods: a winter, warm and with little rain, and a suffocating summer of high temperatures and higher levels of rainfall. Queensland receives more sun and heat during the winter than the rest of the Australian states.
Climate in Queensland
The climate is joined by an abundant nature that favours life in the great outdoors: tropical islands, world-class sandy beaches and many waterfalls, rivers and inlets, plains, expanses of uneven terrain, elevations, arid deserts, lush agricultural areas, more than two hundred national parks and marine parks, humid and biologically diverse forests, tropical reefs and rare fauna and flora.
It is home to several world heritage sites: the Great Barrier Reef, the longest in the world and one of the seven natural wonders; the
Gondwana Moist Forests, Fraser Island, and the Riversleigh
Mammalian Fossil Sites.
Indigenous culture and heritage are preserved, aboriginal art celebrations and festivals are frequent, as well as the typical festivals of residents from other countries.
Among the most practised sports are diving, snorkelling, sailing and fishing.
South Australia, South Australia or South Australia, is known as the “State of Festivals” – they celebrate around five hundred a year, adopted as a slogan “United for the Common Welfare”.
Immigrate and live in Australia – South Australia, Australian state
It is located in the south-central part of the country, in one of its most arid areas. By its total area, it ranks fourth among Australian states and territories (1,043,514 km2).
It limits by the North with the Territory of the North; to the south, with the Great Australian Open Bay and the Indian Ocean; to the East, with New South Wales; by the Northwest with Queensland; by the Southeast with Victoria; and to the West, with Western Australia.
It was established for free men and had no convict history, unlike the other states and territories.
Capital of South Australia
Its capital is Adelaide, called “The City of Churches” and “The Capital of Wine.”
Despite being small, it is the fifth-largest city in Australia, and its metropolitan area is home to most South Australians. It is listed in the 2020 Quality of Life Index as the second-best city in the world, after Canberra.
Among other important towns, the following stand out:
- Mount Gambier
- Murray Bridge
- Crafers – Bridgewater
- Port Augusta
- Port Pirie
- Port Lincoln
- Mount Barker
- Victor Harbor.
The Population of South Australia
For the last census, in 2016, it had 1.37 million (80% of the state), with the lowest population growth (equal to that of Tasmania) of all Australian entities.
Meanwhile, Adelaide reached 1.37 million (80% of the state).
According to the Bureau of Australian Statistics (BAS), in recent years, despite South Australia experiencing population loss due to interstate migration (mainly to Victoria, Queensland and New South Wales), the increase in its inhabitants was due to foreign immigration to live, work or study in this state.
The Economy of South Australia
The components of its economy are services and technology, advanced manufacturing, food and wine, minerals and energy, aerospace and aviation, bioscience, automobiles, ICT, and tourism.
More than half of Australia’s wines are produced here. It is the state that relies most on exports through its large industries of meat and meat preparation, wheat, wine, wool and sheepskin, machinery, metals and metal manufacturing, fish and shellfish, vehicles and their products: parts, petroleum and pharmaceutical products, defence technology and electronic systems.
South Australia weather
It is characterized by its long summers and mild winters. In the South, the Mediterranean climate prevails, with very hot and dry summers and low rainfall, although strong storms and winds exist.
Geography of South Australia
It combines aboriginal experience with natural, cultural, and archaeological beauties and wild fauna with jungle. South Australia is rich in Aboriginal history, art and dance.
It has a museum recognized as a world leader in Australian Aboriginal heritage.
There are more than sixteen wine regions, among which is the Barossa, the most famous in Australia. It has the Naracoorte Caves, on the Limestone Coast, part of the Australian Mammalian Fossil World Heritage Site, which it shares with Queensland.
Also, Kangaroo Island is the fourth of Australia’s most important tourist icons. Likewise, it has national parks throughout the state, several deserts, beautiful gardens and valuable archaeological sites.
It is a territory that lends itself to fishing, boating or kayaking, surfing, wildlife and whale watching, biking, walking, swimming, even with sea lions and dolphins; diving, including inside boxes surrounded by sharks; visiting mines and looking for opals.
Additional Significant Data from South Australia
The state flower is Sturt’s Desert Pea; and the symbolic animal, the Bear of Hairy Nose or the Prairies
Tasmania, “Inspiration Island,” “Rejuvenation Island,” Treasure Island,” “Apple Island,” “Vacation Island,” and “Tassie” are some of the nicknames it receives. It is promoted as “The Natural State” and “A different world, not a world at a distance.” Use as a slogan: “Fertility and Fidelity.”
Immigrate and live in Tasmania – Australia
Island state, located in the extreme southeast of the Australian mainland, from which it is one hundred and fifty miles away. The Indian and Pacific oceans surround it, and the Bass Strait separates it from Australia.
The number 26 among the largest islands in the world. It includes the island of Tasmania and the three hundred and thirty-four islands. With its 90,758 km2 of total area, it ranks seventh among the states and territories of the country. It is also the most mountainous state in Australia.
Hobart, the capital, although small, is the largest city in Tasmania. Very picturesque and famous for its Georgian buildings.
Other important cities are:
A population of 537,000 inhabitants for the 2016 census was recorded for Tasmania, which represented 2.1% of the national total (sixth place among states and territories).
It had the slowest growth rate in all of Australia and the lowest of any state, equaling only South Australia. About 240,000 inhabitants live in the capital (44% of the state).
Processed metals (zinc and aluminium) contribute mainly to its economy; tourism; manufactured products (textiles, machinery: marine, automotive parts, heavy engineering, mining equipment, shipbuilding); wood and paper; mining (copper, zinc, lead); sea products; beef and others; dairy; fruits, vegetables, chocolate, beer and wine; and ICT.
Its main exports consist of unprocessed minerals, dairy products, and other foods and beverages.
The island’s climate is maritime, generally cool temperate, with the four most defined seasons in the country: hot, dry and windy summer (December to March); autumn with abundant sun and great colours (March to May); cold winter with constant rain (June to August); and spring cool, but unpredictable.
Hobart is the second driest capital in Australia, in contrast to the west coast of Tasmania, where rainfall often occurs. There are mountains and hills on the southern coast with layers of snow. Officially, several places in the state have been declared drought-affected areas.
Tasmania is one of the country’s greatest tourist attractions due to the beauty and diversity of its nature, reflected in its landscapes, lakes, coasts, bays, tropical and humid forests, rivers, waterfalls, beaches, mountain ranges and islands.
Macquarie Island, a world natural heritage, stands out among the latter. This state is one of the few places where ancient dolomite rocks abound.
Its varied flora and unique wildlife stand out, with numerous sanctuaries and some of the rarest animals in the world.
40% of the island is made up of protected areas, which include its seventeen national parks and nature reserves, many of them included in the “Wild Land of Tasmania,” a world natural and cultural heritage, such as the Franklin-Gordon National Park Wild
Rivers and Cradle Mountain-Lake St. Clair National Park.
To the natural is added its historical legacy: 19th-century sandstone deposits, ancient cities, old copper, gold and silver mines, indigenous remains, interesting prison heritage sites (world cultural heritages) and stories of loggers, miners and whalers.
Recreational activities are innumerable: kayaking, excursions and camping, golf, observation of animals in their habitat, swimming, sailing, fishing, skiing, snorkelling, searching for and washing gems, rappelling, climbing or hang gliding.
As of 2011, Tasmania’s main tourist attraction is the Museum of Old and New Art (Mona). In addition, many annual events are held on and around the island, such as yacht and car races, a food and wine festival, agricultural exhibitions, and a craft fair.
Additional significant data from Tasmania
The state flower is the Tasmanian Eucalyptus, and the (unofficial) state animal is the Tasmanian Devil.
Melbourne is famous for the Australian Open Tennis.
Victoria, the so-called “Garden State” and “The place to be,” implanted the slogan “Peace and Prosperity.” It is located in the extreme southwest of Australia, with its coastal strip facing the island of Tasmania and South Australia to the west.
Immigrate and live in Victoria Australia
It covers a total area of 228,105 km2. Not including Tasmania, it is the smallest of the Australian states (sixth largest).
Capital of Victoria
Melbourne is the state’s cosmopolitan capital, the second-largest city in Australia and the second-most populous.
Also, an important cultural capital for its permanent artistic, musical, gastronomic, cinematographic, sports and popular programming.
Other important cities are:
- Greater Geelong
Population of Victoria
For the 2016 census, the population was 6.65 million people (26% of the country), while the inhabitants of its capital amounted to 5.08 million (76% of the state). It is the second-most populous state in the country and has the second-highest number of people born outside Australia (after New South Wales).
Victorians come from some two hundred nations, speak more than two hundred and thirty languages and dialects, and profess some one hundred and thirty religions.
With a long migratory tradition, it has welcomed numerous immigrants, especially professionals, technicians and merchants, and a significant number of refugees. Due to the shortage of skilled labour, there are good opportunities in Victoria for skilled migrants.
The economy is based on gold and coal mining and oil extraction.
In Melbourne, manufacturers predominate and in the rest of the entity, agriculture and livestock, particularly sheep.
Climate of Victoria
Climatic variations are observed from one region to another, given its four types of climate: oceanic (in most of its territory), semi-arid, humid subtropical and Mediterranean.
The four seasons are well differentiated. It is generally colder and wetter here than in the rest of the country, except Tasmania.
Geography of Victoria
It is characterized by unique fauna and flora. There are vineyards, virgin nature, arid and desert plains, beautiful and secluded beaches, national parks, forests, lakes and mountains, apart from picturesque rural towns.
With a high awareness for the conservation of cultural, indigenous and historical heritage, it offers numerous cultural and natural attractions and innumerable places of interest: public spaces, modern museums, historical sites, buildings of architectural value, parks, trails and routes, gardens, wildlife areas.
Their folklore is identified with the rural, desert, uninhabited (bush) and the enhancement of the inhospitable interior regions, with enormous respect for those who live and work in them (outback).
It has five parks within the great Reserves and National Parks of the Australian Alps, an old centre of immigrants (Bonegilla) and two world cultural heritages: the Royal Exhibition Palace and Carlston Gardens.
They are practised in this region, among other sports, skiing, surfing, mountaineering or climbing.
Additional Significant Victoria Facts
Melbourne was the capital of Australia while Canberra was being built.
Melbourne is famous for the Australian Tennis Open, the magnificent flower displays at the Melbourne International Flower and Garden Show and the Melbourne Cup.
The emblematic flower of Victoria is the Common Heather; and the emblematic animal, Leadbeater’s Opossum.
It has five parks within the great Reserves and National Parks of the Australian Alps, an old centre of immigrants (Bonegilla) and two world cultural heritages: the Royal Exhibition Palace and Carlston Gardens.
They are practised in this region, among other sports, skiing, surfing, mountaineering or climbing.
Additional Significant Victoria Facts
Melbourne was the capital of Australia while Canberra was being built.
Melbourne is famous for the Australian Tennis Open, the magnificent flower displays at the Melbourne International Flower and Garden Show and the Melbourne Cup.
The symbolic flower of Victoria is the Common Heather; and the symbolic animal, Leadbeater’s Opossum.
Perth is the capital, where more than two-thirds of the state population lives.
Western Australia, Western Australia, also known as “The Golden State” or “The Wild Flower State.” Its motto is “Picturesque Walk.” To the north and south, it borders the Indian Ocean; to the west, with the Great Australian Open Bay; by the Northwest, with the Territory of the North; and in the Southeast, with South Australia.
Immigrate and live in Western Australia, Australian State
Its total area of 2,645,615 km2 is the largest of the Australian states. A huge extension of its territory (4/5) is semi-arid or deserted, with few inhabitants.
Capital of Western Australia
Perth is the capital, home to more than two-thirds of the state population and with the fastest population growth rate of all Australian capitals. Other major cities:
- Port Hedland
The Population of Western Australia
For the 2016 census, Western Australia had 2.64 million inhabitants (10.3% of the country’s total), recorded as the fastest growing of the Australian states and territories and the first highest percentage gained in population increase; while its capital rose to 2,085,973 people (79% of the state).
There is a significant component of indigenous and island population, and it ranks fourth among the states with the highest number of immigrants. It has the highest proportion of the population born in another country (20%).
Western Australian Economy
Its economy is based on the production of minerals and oil. It stands out for the extraction of bauxite and the production of iron ore, gasoline and diesel.
It mainly exports liquefied natural gas (LNG), alumina, nickel, iron ore, gold, diamonds, coal, ammonia, wheat, wool, live sheep and cattle. Likewise, agricultural production, tourism, fishing, viticulture and shipbuilding are key economic factors.
The Climate of Western Australia
The weather varies, but it is always summer. The North tropical, with two seasons: the dry season (April-September), with sun, heat and long days; the humid (October-March), warm and humid with tropical storms.
South of the capital, sunny and temperate, with four well-defined seasons. Although warm and arid, the coast, temperate, and forest had few settlers.
Geography of Western Australia
It is among the world’s first regions with the greatest terrestrial and marine biodiversity.
It has two deserts and many national parks, geological wonders, unique flora and fauna, countless species of wildflowers, gold deposits, the world’s largest collections of prehistoric rock art, clean and deserted beaches, famous vineyards, horizontal waterfalls, mountain ranges, rivers, lakes, pools, forests of very tall trees.
It is home to Shark Bay and Purnululu National Park, world natural heritage sites. Added to this diversity of landscapes is its maritime and prison history (its convict sites are world cultural heritage sites), as well as its aboriginal heritage, to become a region of countless attractions for visitors or tourists.
You can practice snorkelling, swimming, fishing, diving, surfing, windsurfing, hiking and sailing, among others.
Australian Capital Territory
Australian Capital Territory is the Territory of the Capital of Australia.
“The Heart of the Nation, “The Capital of the Bush,” and “The Capital” he chose as a slogan “For the Queen, the Law and the People.”
Immigrate and live in the Australian Capital Territory
It is located in the South East of Australia, in a landlocked enclave within New South Wales, 320 km from Sydney.
It limits to the Northwest, with the basin of the Molonglo river; to the South, with the Naas Creek basin; to the East, with the Goulburn-Cooma railway line; and to the west, with the Cotter River basin. It is the smallest territory with autonomous internal government, although without the complete legislative independence of the other states.
It covers a total extension of 2,358 Km2 (eighth in the national classification).
Its most populous city is Canberra, the capital of Australia. The only Australian capital is located inland, between Sydney and Melbourne. By mid-2020, Canberra was ranked first in the quality of life index.
It is considered the country’s Federal District, with the administrative functions that correspond to it. One of the few planned cities in the world to house the nation’s capital, the Supreme Court and numerous ministries.
Among its small towns and communities, Williamsdale, Naas, Urriara, Tharwa and Hall are listed.
For the 2016 census, the population of Canberra reached 395,000 people. Its growth rate was the slowest in Australia, the lowest of any state, and equal to South Australia’s. However, it obtained the second-highest percentage gained in population growth.
92% Of These Inhabitants Live In Canberra
Among them, public officials and members of some ninety diplomatic representations prevail. It also has the most highly educated workforce in the nation. It is a multicultural population with a wide range of language skills. Its foreign-born residents come from more than 170 different countries.
A highly diversified economy focused on services and public administration. Defence and security are among the largest sectors; meanwhile, education and training are considered export products and attractive destinations for international students.
Other key industries are biotechnology, construction, creative and cultural, environmental, ICT, retail, space science, sports and administration, tourism and conventions.
Stations in the Australian Capital Territory
The seasons are very marked: summer, hot and dry; winter, cold, with some mist and frequent frosts. Some mountains are covered in snow in the Southwest at least once a year. Between October and March, there are storms. The rains are copious in spring and summer but scarce in winter.
Nature is abundant. More than half of the territory is a protected area, which includes parks and reserves with mountains and forests, numerous rivers, waterfalls and streams. A large number of animals and flora in their natural environment and the efficient preservation programs for endangered species, open to visitors, are impressive.
There is a relevant indigenous and pioneer heritage, with important museums and galleries that preserve and display these values.
The National Museum of Australia in Canberra stands out with its splendid historical, heritage and cultural collection and the Canberra Deep Space Communication Complex, part of NASA’s Deep Space Network.
The concept of recreation based on nature offers hiking, camping, fishing, mountain biking, horseback riding, swimming, canoeing, and wildlife observation. They also attract numerous vineyards and wineries with wines of extraordinary quality. Its art and crafts enjoy worldwide recognition. In addition, Canberra is highly visited for its garden city design.
Additional Significant Data
The symbolic flower of the Australian Capital Territory is the Royal Bellflower, and the symbolic animal is the Gang-gang Cockatoo.
Northern Territory or the Northern Territory also has other names: El Territorio, El TN or el Extremo Superior (Top End) and an informal slogan: “You will never never know if you will never leave.”
It occupies the centre and the north-central region of the country. To the north, it borders the Timor and Arafura seas; for the South, with South Australia; to the East, with Queensland and the Gulf of Carpentaria; and to the West, with Western Australia. It ranks third in the nation for its total land area of 1,420,970 km2.
Several Aboriginal languages and dialects are spoken – apart from English. Due to its characteristics of maximum extension and apparent emptiness, it is the one that most represents Australia.
Darwin is its administrative and legislative capital, the main urban centre, a vital point of the territory and home to more than half of the population. It also fulfils many of the functions of territoriality.
Another major town is Alice Springs, the area’s tourist base. The rest comprises separate and scattered settlements – mining and Aboriginal – and rural service centres, including Katherine, Nhulunbuy and Tennant Creek.
A population of 244,300 (0.9% of the country’s total) was registered in this territory for the 2016 census. Of that number, 147,255 lived in the capital.
The economy is centred on oil production -onshore and offshore-, natural gas reserves and mining (lead, silver, zinc, diamonds, bauxite, manganese, gold and uranium). Tourism, based on its unique natural environments and aboriginal heritage, is also one of its fundamental industries.
It exports oil, natural gas, liquefied natural gas (LNG), iron ore, manufactures, agricultural products, alumina, and cultured pearls.
Two climatic zones are observed in “El Territorio”: one in the extreme North and the other in the central desert region. The North is tropical, with excessive humidity (eight months a year) and two seasons: one dry and one wet.
The first is from May to October, with plenty of sun and heat, but with certain wet periods; the rain varies and occurs more frequently in summer, it is scarce between May and September, and there are two moderately cold months: June and July; and the second, from November to April, with heat, humidity and storms connected with tropical cyclones and monsoon rains.
In the central region – the desert heart of the country – the climate is semi-arid, with little rainfall during the hottest months, from October to March.
It is a territory of impressive beauty, with the vitality of natural environments: red sand desert, arid plains, wooded savannahs, green tropics, abundant and rare flora and fauna, picturesque landscapes, elevations, islands, coasts, beaches, waterfalls, lagoons, deep sandy rock gorges. It is also an aboriginal land, with its history, traditional communities of artists, traditional rhythms, galleries, festivals, handicrafts, painting and weaving, objects, ceremonial sites and sacred monoliths. In short, it is an excellent attraction for visitors and tourists due to its natural wonders, history, culture and traditions.
Among the most popular sites, Uluru-Kata Tjuta, Kings Canyon and Kakadu National Park, a world cultural and natural heritage, stand out. Due to his passion for the outdoors,
Additional Significant Facts
The Northern Territory’s signature flower is Sturt’s Desert Rose, and the animal is the Red Kangaroo.
Weather in Australia
The extensive Australian geography is mostly desert, with a semi-arid climate. Australia is one of the driest countries in the world. 40% of its territory is made up of dunes and semi-arid lands commonly known as the “Outback” or uninhabited, which constitutes a characteristic landscape of the country and is at the same time a source of pride for Australians.
Live and Emigrate to Australia – Climate in Australia.
However, Australia is such a large country that it enjoys many climatic conditions: from the heat of the desert to the low temperatures of the snowy mountains, from the abundant rains to the total absence of precipitations.
There are even areas of the country where up to six weather stations can be identified.
Such is the case in the Northern Territory, where locals speak of the rainy season (January and February); the end of the rains (from March to mid-April); the beginning of the dry period (from mid-April to May); the cold and dry season (from June to August); wet weather without rain (September and October); and wet weather with the first rains (November and December).
Climatic variations in Australia
Australia’s varied climate can be described as follows:
Northern Australia (including central and northern Northern Territory and Queensland and northern Western Australia) has a tropical climate characterized by high temperatures, high humidity, and dry and rainy seasons.
The rainy season runs from December to March and is very hot and humid, with temperatures as high as 50 degrees Celsius. The dry season lasts between May and October and is characterized by clearer skies and an average temperature of around 20 degrees Celsius.
The Outback constitutes the centre of the country. This wide expanse includes central and southern Western Australia, the southern part of the Northern Territory, most of South Australia, the far western regions of Queensland and New South Wales, and the north-western part of Victoria.
This region is dry and desert, with high temperatures during the day, intense cold at night (it can reach 0 degrees), and very little rain.
Temperate regions of Australia
Specifically, the temperate regions of the country are the South East Coast, including Tasmania, most of Victoria and New South Wales, southern Queensland and South Australia, and the extreme southwest of Western Australia.
The temperate climate in Australia is highly variable throughout the year, with temperatures averaging around 30 degrees Celsius in the summer and 15 degrees Celsius in the Winter. Summer is hot and dry, while Winter is cool, wet, and windy.
It is a very mild winter and much milder than the winters in North America or Europe.
Snow is rare in temperate Australia. However, along the great dividing range, which runs through New South Wales and Victoria, there is often snowfall on the tops of the mountains, which are not very high. In fact, in this region, you can find some ski resorts.
Australian weather stations
In the temperate zone, you can see the four climatic seasons, which are opposite to those of Europe and North America, due to the geographical location of Australia in the southern hemisphere of the planet:
Summer: from December to February.
Autumn: from March to May.
Winter: from June to August.
Spring: from September to November.
Drought, Fires and Cyclones in Australia
One of the characteristics of the Australian climate is drought. Long periods without rainfall make water a very valuable and careful resource. Drought puts agriculture at risk and increases the risk of dust storms.
In times of drought, restrictions are placed on the number of water people can use, including farmers. In urban areas, restrictions limit the water used for personal consumption (washing, cooking, garden maintenance, etc.)
Bushfires, also characteristic of the Australian climate, are common during summers and drought. Living with bushfires is part of the Australian way of life.
Many Australians take special courses to learn how to fight fire, so they are prepared to join the many groups of volunteers who help professional firefighters in times of crisis. In addition, fire prevention methods are taught in Australian schools.
Cyclones, also characteristic of the Australian climate, are a tropical weather phenomenon. They usually occur between November and April and mostly occur in the country’s north.
About six cyclones occur in Australia each year. The devastating force of these causes serious material damage and also deaths.
Australia’s national day is January 26, commemorating the arrival at Sydney Cove of the first fleet of 11 convict ships from Great Britain, under the command of Captain Arthur Phillip, in 1788.
Australian National Symbols
Since 1984, green and yellow have been used as the national colours of Australia. They are generally associated with the sporting achievements of Australian athletes. However, these colours also have a strong connection to the environment.
Golden yellow evokes images of Australian beaches, mineral wealth, grain harvests and Australian wool fleece. Green, meanwhile, is associated with forests, eucalyptus trees and grasslands typical of the Australian landscape.
In 1988, the aroma, also known as “Acacia pycnantha,” was declared a national flower, and in 1993, the opal was proclaimed a national gemstone.
Although the kangaroo is often associated with Australia, and many citizens consider it a national emblem, this animal has never been officially proclaimed as a country’s symbol. However, the figure of a kangaroo is part of the nation’s coat of arms.
Other Australian national symbols are:
The Australian flag
The national flag of Australia has a dark blue background and is made up of two fundamental graphic elements: the “Union Jack” and six white stars.
The representation of the “Union Jack” or British flag, in the upper left corner, symbolizes the nation’s recognition of the British settlement in Australia.
Below is a white star larger than the rest. It is known as the “Commonwealth Star,” Its seven points represent the six states and the two Australian territories. The seventh point, corresponding to the two territories, was attached to the star in 1908.
The remaining five white stars, also seven-pointed, symbolize the Southern Cross star constellation, which represents the geographical position of Australia in the Southern Hemisphere.
In addition to this, each state and territory has its flag.
The Australian Coat of Arms
The Australian national coat of arms, called in English “Commonwealth Coat of Arms,” is made up of the coats of arms of the six states of the country:
- For New South Wales, the Cross of Saint George;
- for Victoria, the Southern Cross under the crown of Saint Edward, which is the crown of the United Kingdom;
- for Queensland, a Maltese Cross below St. Edward’s Crown;
- for South Australia, a magpie lark in a field of gold;
- For Western Australia, a sable swan;
- For Tasmania, a passing lion gules in a field of gold.
The design also includes the aroma, the national flower, and the figures of a kangaroo and an emu.
The Australian national coat of arms identified the properties and authority of the Commonwealth of Australia and was granted by
King George V of England in 1912.
The Australian national anthem
The “Advanced Australia Fair,” composed by Peter Dodds McCormick in 1878, became official as Australia’s national anthem in 1984, although this tune became a national song in the 1970s.
The lyrics of the anthem are as follows:
Australia’s sons let us rejoice,
For we are young and free;
We’ve golden soil and wealth for toil,
Our home is girt by sea;
Our land bounds in Nature’s gifts
Of beauty rich and rare;
In history’s page, let every stage
Advance Australia fair!
In joyful strains then let us sing,
Advance Australia fair!”
Beneath our radiant Southern Cross,
We’ll toil with hearts and hands;
To make this Commonwealth of ours,
Renowned of all the lands;
For loyal sons beyond the seas
We’ve boundless plains to share;
With courage let us all combine
To advance Australia fair.
In joyful strains then let us sing
Advance Australia fair!
More than 25 million people live in Australia, with an approximate density of 3/km2 (three inhabitants per square kilometre).
The population of Australia: Immigrate and live in Australia.
The annual rate of population increase is calculated at 1.4%, of which almost 60% is due to immigration.
The Australian population is overwhelmingly English-speaking, with deep traditional ties to Britain, the United States and other Western countries.
Although Australia has huge tracts of land in so-called remote regions, almost 80% of the population lives in urban centres, especially in the capital cities along the eastern and south-eastern coasts.
Traditionally, the Australian population is considered to be young. However, the most recent projections indicate that the population will progressively age in line with the increase in life expectancy of Australians.
It is estimated that by 2050, those over 65 years of age will constitute 26% of the total population of Australia.
The First Australians
Aborigines inhabited most parts of the Australian continent before the arrival of Europeans.
It is estimated that around 750,000 Aborigines inhabited the Australian territory in 1788 when the first British settlers arrived.
Initial contact with Europeans disrupted Aboriginal lifestyles, traditions and practices, and during the 19th and 20th centuries, the indigenous population dwindled dramatically.
Until the 1960s, almost no recognition was given to the Australian Aboriginal population. For example, the right to vote in federal elections was not granted until 1965.
Today, Australia’s indigenous population is estimated at more than 798 thousand people (according to data from the 2016 Census), representing 3.1% of the country’s total population).
Indigenous cultures are a part of Australia’s national identity. The government promotes programs and policies aimed at helping indigenous communities overcome social inequalities, especially those related to their health conditions, housing, education, and employment opportunities.
Australia also guarantees that Aboriginal peoples can own the land where they live. It is estimated that 16 per cent of the land in regional Australia, the most remote areas, is owned or controlled by indigenous peoples.
Nationals in Australia
The current base of the Australian population is made up of white people who arrived in Australia due to several waves of immigration, from the first in 1788 with the establishment of the first British settlement.
One of the most important waves occurred at the end of the Second World War, when millions of displaced people arrived from Europe to join, as workers, the country’s development activities.
It is estimated that between 1945 and 1970, more than 6.5 million European immigrants arrived in Australia, many of them encouraged by the so-called “white Australia” policy, which limited immigration, promoting only the entry of white people.
This discriminatory policy was eliminated in the mid-1970s. Since then, Australia has not set limits on the entry of immigrants based on a person’s ethnic origin, sex, or religion.
Other historical aspects of Australian immigration policy in the section Australia, a nation of immigrants.
Foreigners in Australia
Nearly 30% of the Australian population are foreign-born. They mainly come from Great Britain, New Zealand, India, China and Ireland.
Many people from the Asia-Pacific axis have settled in Australia in the last decades. Asia is the main source of immigrants for Australia.
Nearly half (56%) of Australia’s current immigrants come from the Asian continent.
For 2019, the Australian population born outside of that country was distributed as follows:
- England: 986,000 (3.9% of total)
- China: 677,000 (2.7%)
- India: 600,000 (2.6%)
- New Zealand: 570 (2.2%)
- Philippines: 294,000 (1.2%)
- Vietnam: 263,000 (1%)
- South Africa: 194,000 (0.8%)
- Italy: 183,000 (0.7%)
- Malaysia: 176,000 (0.7%)
- Sri Lanka: 140,000 (0.6%)
By 2019 there were more than 7.5 million immigrants living in Australia. Just a year earlier, in 2018, there were 7.3 million, which gives an idea of the growth in the population of people born in another country and who are now part of the Australian population (and represent 29.7% of the total).
That year every country in the world was represented in that percentage of the Australian population.
Some interesting facts about it:
- England still has the largest group of people born in another country living in Australia, but this has decreased between 2012 and 2016 (the year of the last Census).
- China has ranked second since 2017 and has been growing since 2002
- Sri Lanka has been moving up the list, displacing Scotland to 10th place on the list
Type of Government in Australia
Australia is a representative democracy; it has a parliamentary government in which Australian citizens participate and give their opinion. It is a solid system, a pioneer of women’s suffrage and the secret ballot (1895), whose structures and institutions are similar to those of the United Kingdom.
Type of government and political structure in Australia
Currently, Australia belongs to the “Commonwealth” or British Community of Nations, a free association of 53 independent sovereign states that were part of the British crown. For this reason, although Australia is an independent nation, Britain’s Queen Elizabeth II is also formally the Queen of Australia.
Australia is a constitutional monarchy.
The Commonwealth of Australia was established as a federal nation when the Australian constitution came into force on January 1, 1901. The constitution provides the general rules of the Australian government.
Under the constitutional monarchy structure, the Queen appoints a Governor-General of Australia (Governor-General) to represent her, based on the recommendation of the Prime Minister.
The Governor-General, in turn, appoints the ministers on the advice of the Prime Minister and, by convention, acts only on the advice of the ministers in virtually all matters.
The Australian Federative Structure
By the constitution, the Australian federal system includes a national federal government and six state governments. The autonomous territories have governments very similar to the state ones.
States and territories have municipal governments that handle local affairs such as park management, garbage collection, public order and safety, maintenance of local roads, etc.
For its part, the federal government deals with larger issues such as international relations, international trade, the country’s defence, immigration and others.
In practice, the two levels of government cooperate in many areas.
The federal, state and territorial public services are professional in that they hire permanent officials to serve whatever government is in place, regardless of its political ideology.
Federal and state governments include a legislative branch (parliament), an executive branch, and a judicial branch.
The Australian Government
The Federal Parliament, which promulgates national laws, has two chambers: the Senate (Senate), with 76 members, and the House of Representatives (House of Representatives), with twice the number of members in the Senate.
The Australian people directly elect members of both houses in federal elections. The maximum term of the House of Representatives is three years, and that of the Senate is six years.
The party (or parties) with a majority in the House of Representatives forms a government (usually called the ‘Australian government’) with ministers from both houses.
Australian Prime Minister
The Prime Minister is the party’s parliamentary leader (or coalition of parties) and is not elected directly by the citizens but by the party with the most votes in the House of Representatives.
The Prime Minister of Australia is Scott Morrison, who was sworn in on August 24, 2018.
The government does not need to have a majority in the Senate Chamber.
For a bill to be enacted, it must be approved by both Houses; Generally, bills can come from either house, except for certain financial laws that the House of Representatives must propose.
Elections in Australia
Australia regularly holds elections, and voting is compulsory. The maximum term of office of an Australian government is three years, starting from the first meeting of the new Federal Parliament.
However, the Prime Minister can ask the Governor-General to hold elections within three years.
All Australian citizens over the age of 18 can vote. They must be registered or registered with the Australian Electoral Commission.
Laws and Rights in Australia
In Australia, the federal and six state governments include a judiciary. At both levels, this institution privileges the fundamental rights of procedural justice and equality of all citizens before the law.
Laws and Rights in Australia – Immigrate and Live in Australia.
The judiciary is responsible for the interpretation and application of the laws. Judges act independently of the government in carrying out their duties.
The National Constitution and federal laws prevail over any incompatible state law.
The Australian Constitution
The Australian constitution, in force since 1901, defines the responsibilities of the Federal Government, which include foreign relations and trade, defence and immigration. State and territory governments are responsible for all matters not assigned to the Commonwealth.
The constitution can only be changed by referendum, provided a majority in the nation and at least four of the six states. Of 42 referendum proposals presented since the beginning of the federation, only eight have been approved.
Similar to the Federal Constitution, the states’ laws originate from laws enacted by the British Parliament. However, the power to change state constitutions resides with the state parliaments and does not require a referendum.
Anything said in parliament can be declared fair and accurate without fear of a libel suit. The media massively broadcast parliamentary fights and debates.
This has given the Australian government a reputation for being established through public debate and has strengthened the executive branch.
The Application of Justice in Australia
The Australian constitution provides express guarantees of individual and civil rights; however, as a general rule, the protection of these freedoms rests with the federal and state parliaments and the courts in applying common law.
The courts are responsible for applying justice: they decide whether an infraction of the law has been committed and the penalty that should be applied to the person found guilty of the crime.
In some cases, the administration of justice will be done directly by a magistrate, who will dictate the sentence. However, in other cases, a citizen jury will decide under a judge’s guidance.
In all circumstances, the accused is considered innocent until proven guilty beyond a reasonable doubt. The accused has the right to be represented by an attorney.
The highest court in Australia is the Supreme Court (High Court) which represents the final instance of appeal for all litigation.
In addition, the Supreme Court is responsible for interpreting the national constitution. The Supreme Court can decide if a law is unconstitutional and if it should be rendered null and void.
Crimes in Australia
Social order in Australia is achieved through the strict application of laws.
Parliaments enact Australian laws (federal, state and territory). The courts are in charge of deciding if a person committed a crime and what will be the penalty for it.
The police, meanwhile, maintain peace and order in the streets and are responsible for bringing to justice those presumed to have broken the law.
All residents of Australia, whether Australian citizens or permanent residents, must respect and abide by the laws of the country or face the possibility of criminal or civil prosecution.
At the same time, to maintain communal harmony and peace, citizens are expected to respect Australians’ principles, values and common social customs, even if they are not legally required.
In this sense, it is important that newcomers know their obligations and rights and maintain respect for the informal customs of the community where they settle.
They are Considered Crimes in Australia.
In Australia, some of the behaviours that are considered crimes, civil or criminal, are the following:
- Murder, assault, sexual assault, having sex with youth under legal consensual age, paedophilia, violence against person or property, armed robbery.
- Domestic violence is any activity for which the victim may suffer or fear physical, sexual or psychological abuse or harm, forced sexual relations, isolation or economic deprivation.
- Carry out religious practices or rituals, including mutilations, violence, or physical aggression.
- Supply or possession of illicit drugs, especially producing, supplying or selling them.
- Smoking and consuming alcoholic beverages are not illegal activities but are subject to restrictions on public roads.
- Selling tobacco or alcoholic beverages to persons under 18 is a crime.
- It is worth mentioning that Smoking is prohibited in government offices, hospitals, workplaces, restaurants, nightclubs, bars, schools and shopping malls. In addition, in some states and territories,
- Smoking is prohibited in some public outdoor places.
- Disobey traffic laws or commit traffic violations. For example, exceeding the maximum speed limit, driving under alcohol, driving and talking on a cell phone simultaneously, not wearing a seat belt, and transporting a child or infant without approved safety devices (car seat ).
- Mistreat or neglect animals, both companion and wild. This includes violating fish and game laws and killing animals on someone else’s property. There are also restrictions on the type of pets that can be kept in the home.
- Carry weapons such as knives or firearms. Anyone who wishes to own their firearm for hunting, sport shooting, and using on-farm property must obtain a license. It is illegal to have a gun without a license and without being a license holder.
- Littering on public roads, polluting or throwing waste without permission.
- Making excessive noise or disturbing the community.
Language in Australia
English is the national language in Australia. However, the cultural diversity of the population means that more than 200 languages are spoken in different sectors of the Australian community.
Language Spoken in Australia – Immigrate to Australia.
According to data from the latest Census (2016), the most widely spoken language in Australian households is English (72.7%), followed by Mandarin (2.5%), Arabic (1.4%), Cantonese (1, 2%), Vietnamese (1.2%) and Italian (1.2%).
In addition to the intonation of the demonym or accent, the English spoken in Australia includes certain words and singular expressions that can be confusing or difficult to understand for newcomers.
For example, Australians tend to shorten words and use diminutives, so the word “football” becomes “footy,” “television” becomes “telly,” “barbecue” becomes “barbie,” and “afternoon” becomes “arvo.”
In addition, there are other expressions in common use, such as “bloke,” which means man, so when someone asks for guidance, they are likely to get the answer “see the block over there” (see/ask that man).
- “Bring a plate” is often used in informal invitations and means that the guest must bring a plate of food to share with their host and other guests.
- “BYO” stands for “bring your own” and means to bring your drinks in the context of being invited to a casual party.
- “G’day” means “hello, how are you?”.
- A kangaroo is a “Roo,” short for “kangaroo.”
- Additionally, Australians use various diminutives to refer to Australian geography: “Goldie” is the Gold Coast; “Brissi” in Brisbane, and “Aussie” is Australia or an Australian.
- Getting used to this kind of jargon can be a long process, so the recommendation is to ask if you are unsure of the meaning of the expression. It is the only way to learn and avoid cultural confusion.
Communicate in English in Australia
- Mastering the English language is the key to success in Australia, both for job search and active participation in Australian life, developing a vast network of contacts and friends.
- The selection of immigrants for the skilled worker’s program requires the presentation of language tests as a fundamental criterion for evaluating the candidate.
English Program for Immigrants in Australia
- In Australia, there is the English Program for Adult Immigrants (Adult Migrant English Program – AMEP), primarily aimed at newcomers with little or no language command.
- New residents can receive free English classes for up to 510 hours or until the person reaches a functional level of the language.
- It is essential that the interested party establishes contact with the program within three months after they arrive in the country or after receiving permanent residence and that they start classes within no more than one year after their enrollment in the program. . Otherwise, he may lose the right to obtain this service.
Other English Teaching Services in Australia
In addition, other English teaching services in Australia are linked to adult job training programs. They are described below:
- English, reading, writing and mathematics program (Language, Literacy and Numeracy Program –LLNP) that provides 800 hours of free training for adults between the ages of 15 and 64 who have difficulties finding work due to a low level of reading, writing or little command of the English language.
- Workplace English Language and Literacy Program – WELL. This service provides training in reading, writing and mathematics to workers in the English language.
- English as a Second Language New Arrivals Program (ESL-LA). It allows to prepare for the main educational activities and improve the academic results of newly arrived students from countries where English is not spoken. It is taught in primary and secondary schools throughout the country.
Translation and interpretation services in Australia
It is important to the Australian state that newcomers be able to communicate clearly and unambiguously with all Australian government agencies and public services.
Religion in Australia
Australian society is diverse and accepts people who come from different cultures and ethnicities and, consequently, who profess different religions.
The religion of Australia – Immigrate and live in Australia
According to the most recent census, carried out in 2016, the most important religious groups according to their number are:
- Christianity: 52.1% (which includes Catholics, Anglicans and other Christians).
- Islamism: 2.6%
- Buddhism: 2.4%
- Hinduism: 1.9%
- Other religions: 0.4%
- No religion: 20.01%
It should be noted that 9.7% of those surveyed in the census did not answer the question on religion, which was optional.
In Australia, all citizens are free to follow and celebrate their cultural and religious traditions, as long as they do not violate Australian law. Also, Australians are free not to practise any religion if they prefer.
Religious intolerance is unacceptable in Australia
Freedom of religion is a core value of Australian society.
The Australian state is secular and has no official religion. Religious laws are not recognized and have no legal status in Australia. Some religious practices, such as bigamy, are illegal acts in Australia.
Men and women have the same rights in Australia; therefore, any religious practice or cultural tradition that attempts to establish a political or civil difference between the sexes is not legal.
Economy and Standard of living in Australia
After 30 years of growth and economic stability, and like almost every country on the planet, in 2020, Australia entered a recession caused by the COVID-19 crisis. The economy contracted by 7% from April to June and by 6.3% for the second quarter (compared to the previous year). Consumption fell to -12.2%, and most sectors suffered contractions except mining, finance, insurance, public administration, and education. However, this recession is expected to be temporary.
The Australian Economy
Structurally, the Australian economy can be divided into East and West regions.
The eastern region of Australia is home to most services and financial industries. This dynamic sector includes banking, insurance, finance, retail, media and entertainment, tourism, and government services such as education and health.
In addition, Canberra, the Australian capital located in the country’s southeast, functions as the centre of the country’s economic and political policies.
Western Australia, on the other hand, controls most of the natural resources, including iron ore, gold, oil, and natural gas. This region also contains the world’s most significant resources of recoverable coal, lead, rutile, zircon, nickel, tantalum, uranium, zinc, bauxite, copper, and silver.
Political decisions on the country’s development plans swing between these two regions.
Although Australia’s GDP is still dominated by the service sector and financial industries, the natural resource and commodity industries, as well as agriculture, are experiencing a boom period.
Employment in Australia
For its part, the Australian unemployment figures remained stable and on a downward trend, although after the pandemic the figures have varied a little. For 2020, the unemployment rate in Australia has been calculated at 6.8%.
The Australian government is trying to create new incentives for job creation.
On the other hand, inflation was also stable and on a downward trend before the pandemic. In 2011 Australian inflation was estimated at 3.4%, in 2012 it was 2.2%, in 2013 it was 2.7%, in 2014 it was 2.4% and in 2015 it was 1.5%
Quality of Life in Australia
Regarding the population’s standard of living, Australian citizens enjoy good public education and health systems, in addition to receiving social aid and family assistance, if required.
Meanwhile, Centrelink is a social program offering a range of support services and financial assistance to retirees, the
unemployed, families, people with disabilities, indigenous Australians, and people from diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds. Centrelink also provides services at times of significant change in people’s lives.
A housing program also helps low- and moderate-income buyers purchase or rent a property.
Currency and banks in Australia
Australia’s official currency is the Australian dollar. It is represented by the letters A$ and AUD. The Australian dollar can be divided into 100 cents. There are bills in denominations of 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, and 100 dollars, as well as coins in denominations of 5, 10, 20, or 50 cents and 1 or 2 dollars.
Australian Currency and Banks: Immigrate and live in Australia.
The characteristics of Australian banknotes are described below:
- The A$5 note features Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II and Parliament House in Canberra, the country’s capital, on the reverse.
The A$10 bill features images of writers and poets Andrew Barton “Banjo” Paterson (1864-1941) and Mary Gilmore (1865-1962).
Images of Australian regional imagery complete the design: the representation of an Australian cowboy and scenes of life in the “outback.”
SS The A$20 Note features images of Mary Reibey (1777-1855), an English colonist who arrived in Australia as a prisoner in 1792. She went on to become a shipping magnate and philanthropist.
Reverend John Flynn (1880-1951), the founder of Australia’s first medical service, the Royal Flying Doctor Service, was also featured.
- The A$50 note features Aboriginal writer and inventor David Unaipon (1872-1967) and Australia’s first female MP, Edith Cowan (1861-1932).
- The A$100 note features an image of Nellie Melba (1861-1931), the celebrated Australian opera singer, and the distinguished soldier, engineer, and administrator General Sir John Monash (1865-1931), who was commanding general of Australia in the First World War.
Reserve Bank of Australia
The issuing body of the Australian currency is the Reserve Bank of Australia, the central bank of Australia. Its objective is to contribute to maintaining price stability, full employment, and the country’s economic prosperity.
Among its functions is establishing the official exchange rate by the inflation target set in the medium term, issuing banknotes and coins, and managing gold and Australian foreign exchange reserves.
Australian Polymer Banknote Technology
Australia is the pioneer country in the system of banknotes made of plastic or polymer.
The novel technology was entirely developed by Australia and was first introduced in 1988, with the issuance of a plastic $10 note commemorating the nation’s bicentennial.
Between 1992 and 1996, new banknotes were progressively introduced, all printed on polymer to replace the original paper money notes.
Plastic banknotes last four times longer than conventional paper ones, are cleaner and provide greater security against possible counterfeiting. When their useful life ends, they are ground into small particles and recycled into different plastic products.
With this initiative, Australia laid the foundations for a new era of banknotes that are more robust, more difficult to counterfeit, and fully recyclable.
Australia currently produces banknotes for many countries around the world, including Bangladesh, Brunei, Chile, Indonesia, Kuwait, Malaysia, Mexico, Nepal, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Romania, Western Samoa, Singapore, and Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam and Canada.
Australia supplies the polymer on a printed colour basis and with some critical safety features. The plastic rolls are sent to various countries, where official printers add additional qualities determined by the central bank of the respective country.
In their different and original designs, the plastic banknotes exhibit transparencies with holograms that are difficult to imitate. Australian technology effectively fights against counterfeiting.
Banking Services in Australia
Australia has a wide range of banking and financial services, including banks, cooperatives, insurance companies, and pension or investment funds.
Major banks have branches in every city and regional centre. Customer service hours are Monday through Thursday from 9:30 am to 4:00 pm and Fridays until 5:00 pm. Some branches also have extended hours on Saturday mornings.
There are ATMs (Automatic Teller Machines or ATMs) in most shopping centres, which operate 24 hours a day.
Many department stores, supermarkets, and speciality stores have bank transfer terminals (Electronic Funds Transfer at Point of Sale – EFTPOS) through which you can make purchases or withdraw cash.
The Australian banking system is technologically advanced and secure. However, if someone is a victim of theft or fraud, he can apply to the Australian Securities and Investments Commission for help.
Open a Bank Account in Australia.
In Australia, opening a bank account is valuable and necessary as most income, such as wages or salaries and government benefits, is paid directly to citizens through a bank account.
When arriving in Australia, it is recommended to open a bank account within no more than six weeks since, in general, the procedure is straightforward: you only need to present your passport as personal identification.
After six weeks from the arrival in the country, the citizen will need to present other identification documents, in addition to the passport, to open the account; for example, the driver’s license, an employee card, birth certificate, Medicare card, or any document that shows the photograph and the address of the interested party.
In some cases, the bank may request additional information.
For example, if a student account is to be opened or a special account for retirees, the person will be asked for proof of their eligibility.
When the accounts are opened through the Internet, the person must fill out electronic forms that must be printed, signed, and mailed to the bank, along with a photocopy of an identity document. The account will not be activated until the bank receives the documents and signed paper forms.
Opening a bank account can take between 5 and 10 business days, depending on the type of account desired. The period that the bank needs to receive, review and verify all the information provided by the client.
When choosing a bank, all the advantages the institution offers through its banking and financial instruments must be considered. Sometimes interest rates can vary dramatically from one institution to another.
Some of the largest Australian banks are:
- Commonwealth Bank
- National Australian Bank
- Australian and New Zealand Bank
- St George Bank
Taxes in Australia
Australia’s public services, such as hospitals, schools, road infrastructure, railways, and others, are paid for mainly by general tax revenues, which are met through a levy from citizens’ incomes.
Paying Taxes in Australia – Immigrate and Live in Australia
The assessment is established according to the taxpayer’s income levels. The more money a person earns, the more taxes they must pay. Almost all citizens pay taxes in Australia. Only the stratum of the population with the lowest income levels is excepted.
Paying taxes is mandatory. It is one of the essential citizen duties. Tax evasion is considered a severe crime and is severely punished by law.
Australian Taxation Office – ATO
The Australian government collects personal and business taxes through the Australian Taxation Office (ATO). Every citizen and company must apply for a taxpayer number (tax filing number), an individual, non-transferable number that ATO uses to identify and register.
The taxpayer number can be requested by citizens online 24 hours a day, seven days per week. All that is required are the passport number and address. The citizen must register online to obtain the taxpayer number. It takes about ten days for the taxpayer number to be obtained.
The citizen can also fill out paper forms and send them to the ATO. This process may take up to 28 days.
Protecting the taxpayer identification number is essential. Except in exceptional cases, such as opening a bank account, it must not be disclosed to any third party.
Australian Tax Office
Only specific organizations or persons have the right to ask a citizen for their taxpayer number. For example, you may be asked by the Australian Tax Office, the Centrelink program, a superannuation fund, a bank or financial institution, and your employer.
For workers or employees, the tax is deducted monthly from their salary. Self-employed workers must pay the tax at the end of each fiscal year, which begins on July 1.
The Tax Year in Australia
Anyone who receives any income during the fiscal year must file an Income Tax Return before October 31.
If the person uses the services of a registered tax agent, they can file their return after October 30 of the corresponding year. Still, they must make arrangements with the agent before October 31 to obtain other dates to file the tax return.
The Australian Tax Office also offers taxpayers an online tax filing service.
Tax Return in Australia
People who have low incomes can apply for help filing their taxes. The advisory service is called Tax Help and can be contacted at the following telephone number: 13 2861.
Australia also charges Goods and Services Tax (GST), 10% of what is paid for most products and services. The only exceptions are educational and medical services, authorized daycare centres, and certain senior services.
Education in Australia
- Due to its high academic standards, education in Australia enjoys worldwide recognition and reputation.
Education in Australia: Immigrate and live in Australia.
- Every year, Australia receives many foreigners to study at its universities, institutes, schools, and colleges.
- According to UNESCO, Australia ranks fourth among the countries with the highest number of international students in higher education, behind the United States, the United Kingdom, and France.
The academic offer in Australia is wide.
- There are many educational institutes, some with a labour orientation for young people who want a quick insertion into the world of work.
- Primary and secondary education is also recognized for its excellence.
- In Australia, children are required to go to school from age five until they reach school year 10 when students are between 15 and 16 years old. From that age, they can continue their secondary studies or train for work in technical areas.
- Immigrants can send their children to public or private schools according to their choice.
Public Schools in Australia
Public schools (Government Schools) offer free education, although most require a small contribution from parents to support specific educational and sports programs.
Private Schools in Australia
- Private schools (Non-government Schools) are paid, with varied educational programs and services, for example, religious training.
- All educational institutions in Australia, at all levels of education, offer a wide range of courses in all areas of knowledge. The teachers are qualified, and the infrastructure of schools and universities is modern and safe.
- Education in Australia is supervised and regulated by Australian government officials and private agents, who guarantee excellence in educational processes. Health and other public services in Australia
- Australia has an extensive and competitive utility infrastructure in many areas. These services are financed fundamentally by the money collected in citizen taxes, which is why citizens are very sensitive to the proper functioning of public services.
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Immigrate and live in Australia – Public services in Australia
- The three levels of government, federal, state or territorial, and municipal, are responsible for the management of public services.
- The federal and state/territory governments control extensive public services: health (Medicare), education, public safety, law enforcement, prisons, postal services, parks and entertainment areas, road infrastructure and public works, etc.
- The municipal government manages the services of each municipality, such as local roads (highways and paths), public toilets, garbage, and recyclable waste collection, municipal recreational areas, health control services of local businesses, libraries, markets, cultural and sports centres, and, in general, a wide range of community services that vary according to the needs of each locality.
- Municipalities usually have public halls, sports facilities, and recreational and cultural centres available to residents. In addition, services such as child care and services for the elderly or sick are becoming more frequent in municipalities.
- There are also services specially designed for newcomers. For example, the multicultural workers advise immigrants of different origins to help them settle in the municipality and guide them in the knowledge of the norms, rules of coexistence, and customs of the place.
- Generally, municipalities publish information brochures for citizens about services and facilities dependent on local government and how to contact those responsible for these services.
Australian Public Health System
- Health in Australia is public and accessible. Most of the Australian public health system is called “Medicare.” The collection of general taxes mainly finances this system. About a third of health costs are paid through the private sector.
- Medicare provides free medical care in public hospitals and subsidies to patients for private treatment by doctors and specialists. Medicare also pays for medical consultations.
Immigrants enjoy immediate access to Medicare in Australia.
- The Australian government also subsidizes the cost of some medicines through the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS).
- Medicare does not cover ambulance services, dentistry, physical therapy, podiatry, chiropractic, or vision prescriptions (glasses or lenses). However, low-income citizens can apply for the Health Care Card (Health Benefits Card) issued by the Australian government, which entitles them to a series of subsidies to obtain at a meagre cost or free of charge the health services they need. Medicare covers us.
Australian Public Transport
- In the 8 million square kilometres of the country’s surface, its inhabitants – around 25.5 million people – live in very distant cities.
- To overcome distances, the government invests large amounts of resources in the country’s extensive and efficient infrastructure of highways, roads, railways, ports, airports, buses, trains, trams, and ferries.
- Public transport is not accessible, although there are special rates for students and seniors.
- Public transportation is administered by the government at its two levels, federal and state or territorial, through service concessionaires.
Users can obtain all relevant information on where and how to buy tickets, transport schedules, and service characteristics directly through the operating companies:
- Transport NSW
- NT Transport Group
- Trans Link
- Transportation SA
- Tasmanian Subway
- Public Transport Authority
Air Transport in Australia
Regarding air transport, the airlines connect the main cities. Between June 2018 and June 2019, they transported more than 60 million passengers. There are more than 50 airlines that fly to Australia. The main airports are Sydney (Kingsford Smith) and Melbourne (Tullamarine), but there are more than 250 throughout Australia.
Coastal and transoceanic navigation is of great significance, with 70 essential ports. Sydney, adjacent to Botany Bay, is the main one.
Personal Security in Australia
Australia is a safe country compared to almost any other country on the globe; in fact, it is ranked among the twenty safest nations on the planet. Crime and political unrest are rare, and crime rates are low.
Personal Safety in Australia – Living in Australia.
This is possible because the authorities enforce the laws. Police agencies exercise strict surveillance, and citizens who break the law are arrested and punished.
The police is the institution in charge of maintaining peace and order in the streets and are responsible for bringing people presumed to have broken the law to court.
In addition, it fulfils the social function of arresting people suspected of a crime and taking them to the courts responsible for applying the law. Police officers may also testify at a trial in court.
Police in Australia
The national police force is known as the Australian Federal Police.
Its function is to investigate crime against federal laws; this includes organized crime, crimes against national security, drug trafficking, illegal immigration, and violations of environmental laws.
In addition to this police force, all states and territories have their police, which investigate crimes against state or territory law. On an exceptional basis, in the Australian Capital Territory, the Australian Federal Police assumes this responsibility.
When answering, you should ask for the police in an emergency. On all public telephones, an emergency call is free.
Community relations with law enforcement are harmonious and healthy in Australia.
Citizens often collaborate with the police in their investigations, and, in addition, they maintain a vigilant attitude in their communities, so they tend to report any situation they consider suspicious and often ask the police for help.
If a person has witnessed a crime or believes they have information that may be useful to the police in preventing a crime or solving a case, they should contact Crime Stoppers.
Telephone: 1800 333 000
When a police officer questions a citizen, it pays to remain calm and cooperate. Officers generally maintain upright conduct and treat citizens with respect.
Inappropriate conduct by a police officer can and should be reported by the citizen.
Australia is among the ten safest countries
The 2016 Global Peace Index, known as GPI for its acronym in English Global Peace Index, placed Australia in the fifteenth position among the safest countries in the world.
The index classifies some 160 countries covering 99% of the world’s population and uses 23 qualitative and quantitative indicators.
Australia ranks among the top twenty safest nations in the world, along with other industrialized countries such as New Zealand (rank 4), Canada (rank 8), Japan (rank 9), and Switzerland (rank 7).
Austria, Denmark, and Iceland hold the three top positions.
The GPI is the most crucial annual measure of international peace and security. It is prepared annually by the Institute for Economics and Peace (an international non-profit research organization), in collaboration with The Economist’s Intelligence Unit, and under the supervision of an international team consisting of academics and experts who are knowledgeable about security-related topics and peace.
Situations of violence in Australia
Although Australia is one of the safest countries in the world, public order situations may arise in the country’s most populous cities that would risk citizens’ personal safety.
According to police reports, for example, in 2015, sexual assaults reached their highest level in six years, registering some 21,380 victims throughout the year. This means a 3% increase in these crimes across the country.
For that reason, it is good practice for the newly arrived foreigner to apply the same basic security standards they observed in their home country.
An essential piece of advice is to carefully choose the community where you will reside and familiarize yourself with the area to learn how to differentiate the areas considered dangerous. Other simple personal safety tips to keep in mind include:
- Do not walk alone at night. Walking in a group or staying away from streets with very little traffic is best. Then, at the very least, you will be familiar with the neighbourhood of your living.
- Transportation of strangers on the road is not a good idea. This type of favour shouldn’t be asked for or requested from strangers.
- Don’t cross roads with headphones which could block the person from the world in the surrounding area.
- Don’t carry large sums of money with your person. It is easy to utilize the transfer services online, which allow you to purchase or withdraw funds using your credit card.
- Be vigilant when using an ATM: don’t let others see your identification number (PIN), and put money away quickly.
- Carry your handbag or briefcase tightly closed to avoid pickpockets.
- Always cross the street in the pedestrian crossing. In Australia, drivers do not give way easily, so it is in the best interest of pedestrians to be very strict about respecting crossings and permitted lights. In addition, in Australia, driving is on the right side, so newcomers are advised to be careful when crossing streets.
- Caution when making outdoor excursions. Due to the Australian territory’s dense nature and diverse wildlife, newcomers are advised to avoid isolated spots or trails not marked by forest authorities or park rangers. To get to know the Australian geography, it is advisable to take organized excursions and travel in groups.
In Australia, any act of violence and physical aggression towards another person is illegal and can be considered a serious crime.
- Carrying weapons without a license is also prohibited.
- Another significant crime is domestic or family violence.
- Community services and free telephone lines assist victims of domestic violence. Each state or territory is responsible for these services.
- Sexual violence carries severe penalties. Victims can request help 24 hours a day, seven days a week, at the following national telephone line: 1800 200 526
Cultural and social life in Australia
Australia has a versatile and active cultural and social life.
Cultural and social life in Australia – Living in Australia
Free time is important for Australians and they use it to carry out leisure activities, which include sports, outdoor activities (camping, contact with nature, days at the beach) and the consumption of cultural goods (cinema, theatre, musical and artistic shows in general).
Most popular physical activities in Australia
The 10 most popular physical activities among Australians are:
- Walking (particularly in the countryside or mountains)
In addition, as the leading Australian cities are located on the southeastern coastal axis of the country, going to the beach is one of the most popular leisure activities among Australians.
Visual and Performing arts in Australia
- The visual and performing arts also occupy an essential part of the leisure activities of Australians. Cinema, theater, music, and opera have many fans. It is estimated that more than 80% of Australians attend some cultural event at least once a year.
- Australian contemporary arts are diverse and draw on the world’s oldest cultural traditions, including Aboriginal arts, as well as the rich mix of cultures of immigrant communities.
- Between 2017 and 2018, the Australian government (at its three levels) allocated a budget of 6.86 billion dollars to the cultural sector. It should also be considered that this sector contributed more than 117.7 billion to the local economy in the 2016-1017 period, which represented 6.4% of GDP for that year. Directly to arts sector organizations and artists through one of the world’s most significant funding, strengthening, and development agencies for the arts, the Australian Council for the Arts.
- Australia’s arts and culture sector currently generates about 2.7% of the Gross National Product.
Cultural events in Australia
- All forms of culture, including music, dance, theatre, opera, film, literature, and art, are widely accepted in Australia and have reached levels of sophistication and perfection, receiving government support and acceptance from the Australian public.
- In letters, Australia has a strong literary tradition with roots in the mythological stories of the Aborigines. British colonization also fueled Australia’s rich storytelling tradition, with verbal accounts by convicts settling in in the 18th century.
- Thus, great writers such as Andrew Barton “Banjo” Paterson, Mary Gilmore, Peter Carey, Bryce Courtenay, Colleen McCullogh, Tim Winton, Morris West, and the renowned Patrick White, Nobel Prize for Literature 1973, emerged in Australia in the 19th and 20th centuries.
Cinema in Australia
- In the seventh art, the critical film industry has developed in Australia since the silent film era, with emblematic artists like Errol Flynn.
- Australian cinema gradually developed until it achieved, from the 1980s, great international notoriety thanks to the work of essential directors (Peter Weir, Bruce Beresford, George Miller, Gillian Armstrong) and actors and actresses.
- Many talented and admired artists around the world are from Australia, including Nicole Kidman, Geoffrey Rush, Cate Blanchett, Russell Crowe, Hugh Jackman, Naomi Watts, Guy Pearce, Eric Bana, Tony Collette, Paul Hogan, and the singers Olivia Newton-John and Kylie Minogue, to mention the best known.
Gastronomy in Australia
- In the gastronomic area, Australia is also at the forefront. Australia’s ethnic richness is the inspiration for many culinary novelties.
- In its main cities, you can taste the most varied and exotic international cuisine, highlighting the renowned new Australian cuisine, called “Mod-Oz” (“in the Australian way”).
- It is worth mentioning with particular emphasis the developed Australian wine industry that enjoys great international prestige and whose export expectations grow yearly.
Live, Emigrate or Study in Australia.
Is Australia the ideal place to emigrate? By its historical makeup, Australia is a nation of immigrants. This has led it also to become a tolerant and multicultural society.
The country annually accepts the controlled entry of about 170,000 foreigners.
How is life in Australia – Immigrate to Australia
Australia, Nation of Immigrants
The Australian population is made up of people who come from all corners of the world. Around 27% of Australian residents were born in another country, and more than a quarter of the population have parents born abroad. Every year, immigrants from more than 180 countries decide to become Australian citizens.
Throughout its history, Australia has received successive waves of migration, making it a truly multicultural nation. Its cities are inhabited by people from many countries, mainly from the United Kingdom, New Zealand, China, Italy, India, Pakistan, South Africa, the Philippines, Korea, Vietnam, Greece, Thailand, and Indonesia.
Migration has significantly impacted the characteristics of the Australian population, bringing in a diverse range of ethnic, linguistic, and religious backgrounds and contributing to population growth.
The First Australians
Before the arrival of European settlers, Aboriginal people inhabited most parts of the Australian continent. Adaptable and creative with simple but efficient technology, Indigenous Australians had complex social systems and highly developed artistic and religious traditions that reflected their deep connection to the land and environment.
At the time of the arrival of the first European settlers in the 18th century, it is estimated that around 750,000 Aborigines inhabited the Australian territory.
Asians and Oceanians maintained contact with indigenous Australians for thousands of years before European expansion into the Eastern Hemisphere.
In 1606, the Spaniard Váez de Torres discovered the strait that today bears his name. Three years later, Fernández de Quirós was the first European to recognize the Australian territory; subsequently, French, English, and, above all, Dutch explored the coasts and the interior.
European settlers in Australia
The first significant wave of European migration began in 1788, when a fleet of the British Royal Navy, under the command of Captain Arthur Phillip, established the first European colony in Australia, made up of 1,500 people, including 750 English prisoners.
January 26 has been declared “Australia Day,” commemorating the arrival of the first ships with English convicts.
Around 160 thousand convicts, between men and women, were sent to the island continent from England during the 80 years between 1788 and 1868.
Very little was known about the continent’s interior or its extensive coastline in the early years of European settlement. However, the pressure to find land for grazing and agriculture promoted successive expeditions to the country’s interior.
However, Australia’s significant development happened during the second half of the 19th century, with the discovery of gold mines and the development of the sheep industry.
Australia’s total population tripled, from 430,000 in 1851 to 1.7 million in 1871. Most of these newcomers were British, but there were also people from the Americas, France, Italy, Germany, Poland, and Hungary. Some 40,000 Chinese also came searching for gold, the largest ethnic group after the British.
In the early 20th century, Australia became an open and democratic society. The European population then present in Australia was 3.8 million inhabitants, of which half lived in large cities.
Three-quarters were born in Australia, the vast majority of English, Scottish or Irish descent, and generally enjoyed a higher standard of living than their relatives in Britain.
With the end of World War II, the nation entered a period of economic boom, with the opening of mines and significant nation-building projects.
The 1950s were a time of political stability based on developing a prosperous society of urban owners that facilitated the entry into the country of immigrant citizens and post-war refugees. The population increased from around 7.4 million in 1945 to 10.4 million in 1960.
After the 1950s and 1960s, a wave of non-English immigrants arrived in Australia, mainly white, mostly from Southern and Eastern Europe.
In addition, since then, a significant number of Asians emigrated to the country, coinciding with the strengthening of trade relations between Australia and Japan, a country that replaced Great Britain as Australia’s leading trading partner during the 1970s.
These successive waves of migration completely transformed Australia, especially in the big cities.
Today, the Australian population, which exceeds 22 million inhabitants, is a multicultural society comprised of indigenous people and immigrants from more than 180 countries worldwide.
Indigenous peoples live in all of Australia’s states and territories, both urbanized and relatively remote areas.
They excel in many fields, including academia, literature, sports, the arts, business, and professional worlds.
The Australian Government invests significant resources in official programs and initiatives aimed at improving the conditions of Australia’s indigenous peoples.
Australia’s non-discriminatory immigration policy
Australia currently has a non-discriminatory immigration policy. The Australian immigration program has two components.
The first underlines the importance of attracting new immigrants with studies or professional training that can be useful for the country’s economic growth. The second emphasizes migration aid to refugees and other citizens for humanitarian reasons.
For 2012-2013, the immigration program in its economic component assumes 190,000 places for workers. The humanitarian program has been set at 13,750 places.
Australia has a good record of resettling refugees. It is one of the 147 signatory countries of the United Nations Convention and the Protocol on the Status of Refugees.
The Australian Government is fully committed to an anti-discrimination policy. In 1996, the Prime Minister of Australia proposed a parliamentary declaration on racial tolerance. The House of Representatives unanimously accepted the declaration.
The manifesto constituted a denunciation against ethnic intolerance and a reaffirmation of the principles of equal rights regardless of race, colour, creed, or origin, and a commitment to the process of reconciliation with aboriginal peoples.
However, it is essential to know that Australia has not been exempt from discrimination against foreigners. In fact, until the Second World War, Australia only promoted the entry of white citizens into its territory during the “White Australia” period.
Australia currently practices greater openness. However, its official policy is based on selective immigration that mainly favours refugees, family members, and highly qualified professionals in professions and trades that the labour market requires under stringent legal conditions.
Advantages of Choosing Australia to emigrate
Immigrating to Australia is a complex process that involves essential decisions. It is worth knowing the advantages of choosing Australia as a new home:
The United Nations Organization has declared Australia the second-best country in the world to live in, after Norway, due to its excellent quality of life.
The UN establishes this classification, also called the Human Development Index, based on an annual survey that evaluates the social and economic wellbeing indicators of some 187 countries.
Australia stands out for its excellent indicators of access to education, high life expectancy, and low crime rates. This clearly indicates their high quality of life and socioeconomic wellbeing.
Australia is the second happiest nation on earth.
Australia has been named the 2nd happiest country globally because of its high indicators of general wellbeing, just behind Norway.
The designation was conferred by the famous magazine “The Wall Street Journal” The classification was based on an analysis of eleven indicators of wellbeing utilized in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), which has developed the Better Life Index.
Australia has high scores in all the variables analyzed by the index: income, employment, housing, community, personal balance, education, citizen participation, and health, as well as life satisfaction and security. The top three nations in the index are Norway, Australia, and Denmark.
Australians enjoy a comfortable standard of living.
Australians enjoy a comfortable living standard, good health and social security systems, a high level of education, sound communication systems, a stable and highly developed financial system, and a safe and clean natural environment.
It is one of the safest countries in the world and is devoid of extreme poverty.
Australia’s vibrant economy is experiencing its most decisive moment in recent decades. In terms of international trade, it is oriented toward manufacturing high-value products and services.
It has a qualified workforce, the socio-political support of democratic institutions, social harmony, and a lifestyle that is an example throughout the world.
Colonized by England in 1778
England colonized Australia in 1778; for this reason, it has the same language, system of government, and justice as the United Kingdom. It is a highly developed country, just like the nations of
North America and Europe.
The visa approval process for the qualified migration program takes, on average, 18 months, which is considered fast compared to other countries.
Australia Skilled Immigration Program
For newcomers, the job search is usually quick and efficient since the qualified immigration program is based on the selection of candidates who respond to the demands of Australian employers.
In addition, for the exercise of several professions in Australia, professional validation is required before granting the visa, making it easier for immigrants to enter the local labour market.
Reception Of Immigrants
The Australian government invests significant resources to receive immigrants during their installation.
State services to help immigrants include vocational training, English language training, specialized job search advice and guidance, and many social programs to help newcomers.
The Australian level of education is recognized worldwide for its excellent quality.
You can find colleges in Melbourne
This is credited to the high proportion of foreigners that make up the student population of Australian universities, who represent more than 10% of all students enrolled in these institutions.
Since its founding, Australia has been a nation of immigrants. This has also made it a tolerant and multicultural society, with absolute rejection of racial discrimination.
The number of immigrants of Hispanic origin is growing in Australia. There are numerous communities of Latin Americans and Hispanics, well organized and established in the country’s main cities.
Australia has a rich language.
Australia has a highly advantageous language wealth for immigrant citizens. More than 3 million Australians speak a language other than English in their family environment.
The cultural diversity within the population has translated into almost 400 languages commonly spoken among the community. More than half of them are languages other than English spoken by immigrants settled in Australia.
This means that Australian cities are rapidly becoming home to companies that need to employ workers with diverse language skills.
Australia one of the safest nations
Australia is considered one of the safest nations on the planet. It has low crime rates and efficient police forces dedicated to preventing and repressing violent situations.
Australian citizens are generally proud of the peaceful society in which they live.
The Australian climate is quite tolerable. It varies according to the different regions; it is tropical in the North and seasonal in the South; however, the winters are not as extreme as in North America and Europe.
Snow does not fall in any of the big cities.
Life In Australia
Australia has one of the world’s lowest population densities per square kilometre. For this reason, they have a pressing need to populate the country to guarantee the subsistence of the economic and social security systems.
The Australian lifestyle favours enjoying free time with family, friends, sports, and contact with nature. Work is a fundamental value of society, but it must be accompanied by the necessary time for rest and recreational activities.
Disadvantages of Choosing Australia to Emigrate
When emigrating to Australia, the advantages of the decision and the unfavourable elements must be balanced, such as those listed below:
Due to its geographical location, Australia directs its foreign and commercial policy to reaffirm the Asia-Pacific geopolitical axis.
This means that Australia may eventually prioritize the immigration of citizens from the major economic powers in the region, such as China, India, Japan, Singapore, and Korea.
It may also mean that Australian companies preferentially employ professionals with experience managing relationships with Asia or fluent in an Asian language.
Huge Geographical Distance
There is a vast geographical distance between Australia, Latin America, and Europe. This fact is inconvenient for many who emigrate alone, leaving all their family and friends behind in their countries of origin.
Travelling to Australia from Latin America and Europe can mean between 24 and 30 hours of flight, depending on the air route chosen. The air ticket cost is, on average, about US$ 2 thousand (US dollars).
This means that once you are in Australia, it is costly, both in terms of time and money, to return to your country of origin for short visits to family or friends. It will not be easy for the immigrant to attend personally to some type of emergency in the country of origin, such as the illness of a relative.
Australia Time Difference
Communication with relatives who remain in the immigrant’s country of origin can be complicated since Australia’s Asian time zone must be considered; the difference between Latin American and European countries can be up to 10 hours.
Intense Competition In The Workplace
Australia has a highly qualified professional resource. On average, Australians spend more years in primary and secondary education than their counterparts in other countries such as Japan, Germany, or the UK.
45% of the Australian workforce has a university degree or vocational training or other qualifications, and 30% of Australians with university degrees have postgraduate training.
Immigrant citizens will have intense competition from Australian citizens when looking for a job.
Australian Immigration Is Selective
Australian immigration for skilled workers is selective. Not all interested parties can opt for that system. It is required to have a diploma and work experience in certain professions considered in demand and an adequate command of English.
In general, candidates are evaluated according to the so-called points test, allowing immigrants to be selected according to specific attributes considered relevant to Australia.