Mango has been cultivated since ancient times. Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is the most liked fruit by the common man in India since ancient times. It is considered to be the best fruit due to its nutritional, sweet taste, excellent aroma, variety and good color and in India it has been called the king of fruits.
Mango is cultivated on 1486.9 thousand hectares of land in India, due to which about 10503.5 thousand M. Tons of mangoes are produced. Mango accounts for 39.16% of the total area (37.97 lakh hectares) under fruits and contributes 23.09% to the gross production (45.55 million tonnes).
In terms of area production, Uttar Pradesh is at second place after Andhra Pradesh. Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Karnataka are leading mango producing states, where its production is 2379.6, 1519.0, 1871.9, and 1179.9 thousand respectively. Tons. India ranks first in mango production in the world (rank first in mango production). India’s contribution to the total mango production (1800-2000 tonnes) in the world is about 36.64%.
Every part of the mango tree is used in some form or the other, where mango twigs are used in the havan, while the leaves are used on Mangal Kalash, Mangal Bandhanwar and in many religious works.
Where wood is used for building works, fruits are used for food. Raw mangoes are used in making chutneys, pickles, amchur and beverages.
Apart from eating ripe fruits, anus, juice, squash, jam, cleavage, nectar, and mango are used in papad. Even mango kernel is dried and used in food, this kernel contains 8-10% fat, which is used in soap and the starch obtained from it is used in the biscuit industry. Vitamin ‘A’ and ‘C’ are abundant in mango fruits.
There is a strong potential for export of mango fruits and products in India. Although mango and its products are mainly exported from the cultivation of mango in the Gulf countries, efforts are being made to increase their export in America, European and Asian countries also. 2.63 thousand tonnes of mango fruits were exported recently.
Climate for Mango Cultivation
Mangoes can be grown in both tropical and sub-tropical climates. Mango cultivation in India can be done in the Himalayan region from sea level to 1500 meters height, but from the commercial point of view it can be grown with more success only up to 600 meters. Fluctuations in temperature, height above sea level, rainfall and storms adversely affect its yield. Small plants can be more prone to frost damage.
Most of the mango varieties grow well in areas with average annual rainfall and dry climate, for this the annual distribution of rainfall is more important. The dry weather is good at the time of flowering, light rain is useful after the fruit is planted, but due to excessive rain, strong storm, hail and cyclone, the blossom and fruits fall due to which there is a lot of loss.
Land for Mango Farming
Mango tree can be grown in many types of land. It can be successfully planted in hilly areas from the coast, which is why mango orchards are found in both less and more fertile land types.
Although it is possible to plant mango in almost every type of land, mango cannot be cultivated in sandy, sloping, stony, alkaline and waterlogged land for planting its orchards.
For successful cultivation of mango, loamy, well drained and deep land, whose pH value is between 5.5-7.5, is considered suitable. Mango plant should be planted in less fertile land from the beginning by making proper arrangement of manure and fertilizers, so that the plants can be established.
Varieties for Mango Cultivation
|Andhra Pradesh||Baiganpally, Bangalore, Cherukuri, Himayuddin, Swarnrekha, Malgoa|
|Bihar||Langra (Malda), Bombay, Himsagar, Kishan Bhog, Sukul, Bathuva, Jardalu, Sepia, Fajri, Gulab Khas|
|Gujarat||Kesar, Alphonso, Rajapuri, Vanraj, Jamadar|
|Hariyana||Siroli (Bombay Green), Dussehri, Langra|
|Karnataka||Alphonso, Bangalore, Malgoa, Neelam, Parry, Raspuri|
|Keral||Moondappa, Olure, Parry|
|Madhya Pradesh||Alphonso, Bombay, Langra, Dussehri, Sundarja|
|Maharasthra||Alphonso, Saffron, Mankurad, Parry, Malgoa|
|Udisha||Baiganpally, Langada, Nilam, Swarnrekha|
|Punjab||Dussehri, Langada, Samar Bahisht, Chausa|
|Tamilnadu||Baiganpally, Banglora, Nilam, Rumani, Malgoa|
|Uttar Pradesh||Dussehri, Bamboo Green, Gourjeet, Langra, Fajri, Safed Lucknow, Samarbhisht, Chausa, Gulab Jamun, Khasulkhas, Rataul|
|Bengal||Bombay, Himsagar, Kishanbhog, Langra, Jardalu, Ranipasand, Fajri, Ashwaniya, Lakhanbhog|
Commercial Varieties for Mango Cultivation
It is the main commercial variety for the cultivation of mango grown in the state of Maharashtra. It is most liked in the country, in different parts of the country it is known by different names such as: – Badami, Gundu, Khadar, Appas Hapoos and Kagdi Hapus. The size of its fruits is medium, oblong and oval and the color is yellowish orange.
The aroma and quality of its fruits are very good and storage capacity is good. The fruits of this variety are ready in mid-season, it has a good demand in the international market. India mainly exports this variety of fresh fruits to other countries.
It is a commercial variety of South India, it is also known by many other names besides Bangalore, such as: – Totapuri, Kallamai, Thevediamuthi, Collector, Bermodilla, Kili Mukku and Geely Mukku. The shape of its fruit is simple long and the base is throat-shaped, its color is golden yellow but the taste is not very good.
The best feature of this variety of fruits is its storage capacity, it can be kept safe for many days. This variety is widely used in the processing industry, it is a mid-season variety, there is a good potential to encourage the cultivation of this mango in North India also.
It is a commercial variety of Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu, it is also known by the names Flata, Safeda, Beneshan and Chaptai. Its fruit is long and oblong oval in shape, the color of the fruit is golden yellow. It is a mid-season variety which is found suitable for canning, has high storage capacity and moderately good taste, in recent years it is being exported to Andhra Pradesh.
It is a commercial variety of Bihar state. It is also known as Malda in Bengal. Its fruit is medium and curved oval and yellow in color, its taste and storage capacity is medium, it is an early ripening variety.
This variety is planted more in North India, it is an early variety and in western Uttar Pradesh it is also known as Sirauli. Its color is green like spinach and its shape is oval and oblong, its fruit is of medium size and good taste, it is a variety with medium storage capacity.
Due to its origin in Dussehri village near Lucknow, this variety is known as Dussehri. Dussehri is the commercial variety of the main mango cultivation of North India and it has a prominent place among the best varieties of the country. Its fruit is medium in size, long and oblong. Its ripe fruits are yellow in color, which ripen in mid-season, the quality and storage capacity of its fruits is good. Mainly, ripe fresh fruits of Dussehri mango are used in eating.
It is a regular fruiting and high yielding clone selected from Dussehri variety. Its productivity is about 38.8% more than other clones of Dussehri variety, due to which you get more production from mango cultivation.
This variety of mango is mainly grown in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and Bengal, its fruit is very long, curved oval and light green in color. Its fruit quality and storage capacity is medium. This variety of mango matures late.
This is a very old variety of Mumbai, some people consider its origin to be Goa. The size of its fruits is medium to long, oval or round oval and yellow in color and the upper part is red, its storage capacity and quality is medium. It is a late maturing variety, just like Dussehri, its fruits can also be eaten.
This is a famous mango variety of Bengal which is very much liked there. Its fruit is of medium size, flattened or oval and yellow, its fruit quality and storage capacity is high. It is an early maturing variety.
This variety of mango having red color like parrot beak in its upper part is the main variety of Gujarat state. Its cultivation is also increasing on a large scale in Maharashtra. Its fruit is medium in size and elongated, and it can be stored for many days. It is an early maturing variety, the fruits of this variety are exported from Gujarat and Maharashtra.
11. Kishan Bhog
The fruits of this variety of mango grown in Murshidabad, Bengal are medium sized, oblong spherical and yellow in color. The quality of the fruits is good and it can be preserved for a long time, the fruits of this variety are ripe in mid season.
The fruits of this variety of mango grown in Banaras, Gorakhpur and Bihar region of North India are medium, oval and light green in color. The quality of its fruits is good and the storage capacity is medium, its fruits have a good mixture of sweetness and sourness, due to which it is considered to be a very tasty variety. In addition, the pulp content of the fruit is high and the kernels are thin and the color of the pulp is yellow. The fruits of this variety mature in medium season. In Bihar it is also known as Malda.
It is a commercial variety of South India, due to the special quality of its fruits, it is very popular among mango lovers. Its fruits are large and oblong spherical, the color of its fruits is yellow and the storage capacity is good. It is a late ripening variety.
This is a well-known commercial variety of Goa and Ratnagiri, in the rainy season black spots appear on the upper surface of its fruits. Its fruits are medium and oval and yellow, fruit quality and storage capacity is simple, it is a mid-season variety.
It is the main variety of Tamil Nadu state, due to its good storage capacity, it is ideal variety for marketing. Its fruits are mid and curved oval and saffron in color. Fruit quality and storage capacity is best, it is a late maturing variety.
This variety of mango originated as a Biju tree by a talukdar’s orchard in Sandila salt place of Hardoi district of Uttar Pradesh. Due to its distinctive aroma and taste, it is generally grown in the northern region of India, its fruits are large and flat and oval in appearance, its fruits are light yellow in color and quality is good. Its fruits are sweet and juicy, its storage capacity is medium. This variety of mango is ready by late ripening, this variety has good prospects in export promotion in North India.
It is a commercial variety of Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, it is also known as Sundari, Laat Sundari and Chin Subarnarekha Le. Its fruit is medium and oblong and oval. The color of CK fruits is yellow like light cadmium and the upper part is red, it is an early variety. Its quality is medium and storage capacity is good.
This is a famous variety of Baroda district of Gujarat, its fruit is of medium size and oblong oval. Its color is dark chrome and the upper part is reddish, fruit quality and storage capacity is good. It is a mid-season variety.
This variety of mango is grown mainly in the Murshidabad region of Bengal, this variety is also prevalent in Bihar. It was named because of the shape of a dry fruit called Jardalu. Its fruits are simple in shape, spherical long, golden yellow with aroma and of good quality. Fruit storage capacity is medium, it is a mid-season variety.
This variety of mango has been developed from the crossbreeding of two famous varieties, Dussehri and Neelam, the trees of this hybrid are dwarf and come in regular fruiting. But its fruits ripen late, its fruits are of medium size and the anus is red and tasty. Fruit storage capacity is high, this variety is suitable for intensive gardening.
1600 plants of this variety can be accommodated in one hectare of land, which has the capacity to give 16 tons per hectare of fruit after the age of five years. Apart from fresh food, there is immense scope for commercial promotion of this variety for the processing industry.
This hybrid variety of mango has been developed from the version of Neelam and Dussehri. Its fruits are medium large and oblong, the amount of pulp in the fruit is large and the kernels are thin, the color of ripe fruits is yellow. Its fruit quality and storage capacity is good, it is a late maturing variety. Its commercial cultivation is increasing in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka etc. This variety is suitable for processing (slices). Apart from this, there is also a good potential for export of its fruits.
This hybrid variety of mango has been developed from the version of Bainganpalli and Alphonso, this variety is suitable for dwarf intensive gardening, gives regular fruits and is free from the disorder called ‘spongy tissue’.
This hybrid variety has been developed by crossbreeding Alphonso and Bainganpally. Its fruits are medium, attractive and have red aura, its storage capacity is very good and it is free from the disorder called ‘spongy tissue’.
24.Arka Neel Kiran
This hybrid variety has been developed by crossbreeding Alphonso and Neelam. It is regular fruiting and late maturing variety, its fruits are medium sized, attractively colored and free from disorder called ‘spongy tissue’.
This hybrid variety has been developed by crossbreeding Neelam and Alphonso. The size of its trees is medium and the color of the fruits is attractive, it is free from a disorder called ‘spongy tissue’.
This variety of mango has been developed from the crossbreeding of Ratna and Alphonso. It is regular fruiting, early maturing and small kernel and free from ‘spongy tissue’.
This variety has been prepared from the crossbreeding of Romani and Malgoa, it is a dwarf and high yielding variety. The color of its fruits is yellow and the size is large.
This hybrid variety has been prepared from the hybridization of Rumani and Neelam, it is a dwarf and more fruit-bearing variety, the anus of its fruits is fiberless and hard.
This variety has been prepared from the hybridization of Chin, Subarnarekha and Neelam, it is a variety with regular fruiting and high yielding.
This variety is obtained from the hybridization of Amrapali and Janardan choice, the fruits are medium in size and oval. The color of the fruits is yellow, attractive and lustrous, it is a regular fruiting and late maturing variety.
In addition to the above, other hybrid varieties like Alfazali, Sundar Langra, Sabri Jawahar, Nilfanso, Nileshan, Lileswari and PKM-2 have also been developed.
Propagation of mango is done by different methods of grafting, in which seed plants of 6 months to 1 year age are suitable for rootstock. In North India, especially in private nurseries, mango propagation is done on a large scale by offering grafting. Amplification by this method has the following drawbacks:
Sankur branches remain in adolescence (juvenile phase), as a result such plants start fruiting with a delay of 1-2 years.
A limited number of Sankur branches are available from Matri tree. With this method, it is not possible to propagate the desired species by bringing it from outside.
Propagation Techniques for Mango Cultivation
In view of the benefits of grafting, other methods of grafting, by which mangoes are successfully propagated in other states, should be encouraged as per convenience. Due to the increasing demand for high-yielding mango plants, there is a need to Healthy branches are available from the tree for maximum time and with the help of various methods and structures and polyhouses, net houses etc., at whatever time of the year is possible, regular propagation should be done.
Mango is propagated by the following methods-
1.Veneer Pen Method
This is a proven method of mango propagation which was standardized by the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi. Mango propagation is being done on a large scale in North India, especially in agricultural universities and research institutions, whose details are as follows.
- Healthy biju plants of one year age, about 10 mm in diameter, are used as roots.
- For Shankur branch, 5-6 months old healthy branches of desired variety are used.
- The leaves of Shankur branch (leaf lamina) are cut leaving the stalk 8-10 days before grafting.
- At a height of 15-20 cm from the ground surface in the root, a 3-4 cm oblique incision is made in the side
- A small transverse cut is made at the base of the incision in such a way that the conical branch can be conveniently placed in it.
- The sankur branches in which the apical bud has become full (but before it bursts) are collected from the mother tree in the morning or evening, by wrapping these sankur branches in a piece of sackcloth and sprinkling water from above. Keeps moist
- In the lower end of the sankur branch, a long incision of about 3-4 cm is made in the opposite direction of the root in such a way that the sankur branch can sit comfortably in the incision made over the place made of the root.
- When the sankur branch is well established in the root, it should be tightly tied with 200 gauge polythene bandage. After this process, the topmost part of the root is cut by about 10 cm.
- In North India, mango propagation can be done easily by this method at any time from July to September when open beds and polyhouse facilities are available. Apart from this, plants can also be made by this method in the month of March.
- If there is a split in the conifer branch, the top branch of the root is cut, this action is completed in two times.
This is a simple method of common propagation in a short time, in this, the root and narrow branches are soft. Therefore, in the initial stage of propagation, good success is achieved only when proper environment, moisture and temperature are available. Mango is propagated by this method at the commercial level in Konkan region.
Amole (young seedlings) of 8-10 days of age, which have coppery leaves, are used for root.
Amole is treated with kernels in 0.1% Bavistin for 5 minutes.
The apex branch of amola is cut from a height of 6-8 cm and a 3-4 cm vertical incision is made in the center of the apex.
Sankur branches which are equal to the diameter of these roots and which have been prepared like fully described veneers, are of transplantation age, then it is propagated.
3.Gentle Branch Pen Binding
It is a method between veneer and seed grafting which should be successfully used on commercial scale in mango propagation in the country. First it was standardized in Gujarat Agricultural University campus, Anand. By this method, open beds and polyhouse facilities can be propagated for almost a year by this method and mango cultivation can be done well. The details are as follows-
- They are used for propagation when the coppery leaves are turning yellow and the root stalk is 6 months to 1 year old.
- Roots are planted in open beds or polythene bags when arrangements are available.
- Sankur shakha is prepared in the same way as veneer.
- Roots and conical branches should be selected of the same thickness.
- At the top of the root, a vertical incision of about 4 cm from the cut part is carefully made in the middle towards the bottom.
- At the base of the sankur branch, about 4 cm slant cutting is done like a pen on both sides. The Sankur branch is carefully transplanted onto the root stem and care is taken that it is properly seated. Then the solder is tied well with a 200 gauge thick polythene strip.
- As per requirement, thin polythene tube is applied over the grafted sankur branch for 10-15 days (till the time before apical bud erupts).
- After the apical bud has erupted, the tube can be removed and implanted on another growing plant.
- When the facility is available, after transferring them to the environment for one to one and a half months and for the same time in ordinary polyhouse and later in net house and open curries, the plants are ready for planting.
- Establishment of mango orchard in situ is possible by this method.
On the basis of experience, there is a simple method in Veneer, Sankur and Komal Shakha Kamal Bandhan, which should be promoted at commercial level in North India.
Preparing Biju Plants for Mango Cultivation
The plants produced from the kernels are used as roots. To prepare Biju plants, mango kernels are planted in the curries treated with rotted manure (8-10 t/ha) in the month of June-July. 24 kg as an alternative to rotten dung manure. Nitrogen per hectare (in the form of urea, calcium ammonium nitrate or other inorganic material) can be applied twice at two months interval after the green leaves of new plants.
Biju plants should be planted after 2-3 months in pre-prepared curries or in polythene bags and in this method of transplanting plants from one place to another, full care should be taken of irrigation. To protect these small plants from frost, they should be kept under big shady trees or should be covered with grass in the month of December-January.
Generally, any seedling root is taken to prepare the mango variety, but it has been observed that the use of polyembryonic rootstocks develops the tendency of trees to bear fruit quickly.
Before planting mango trees, the field should be deeply plowed and leveled. After this, suitable type of pits should be made at a fixed distance in the month of May-June and rotten manure of cow dung should be mixed in them. Good saplings of the varieties of trees to be planted should be brought to the recognized nursery a few days before.
Mango Tree Planting Time
The rainy season is considered suitable for planting mango trees throughout the country, because there is a lot of moisture in the atmosphere these days. In areas with high rainfall, mango trees should be planted at the end of the rainy season and in areas with less rainfall at the beginning of the rainy season so that the plants can establish well. The best time to plant trees is in the evening. Trees wither in the heat of the day. Plants can be planted even during the day if the sky is covered with clouds.
Distance between trees (in mango cultivation)
The distance between mango trees depends on the different varieties of mangoes, the fertility of the soil and the plant growth in the area. On the land where the plants study fast, the plants should be kept 12X12 m. should be placed at a distance of 10X10 m on dry land or area where growth is less. distance is sufficient. Amrapali which is a beanie variety, 2.5×2.5 m. can be placed at a distance of Dussehri species For intensive horticulture, the plant-to-plant distance is 5×5 m. is suitable.
Size of Pits
If the land where plants are to be planted is deep and loamy, then 0.5 to 1 cubic meter. The pits should be dug but the size of the pits should be at least 1x1x1 cubic meter in hilly area and shallow land.
While digging the pits, the top 30 cm. The soil should be kept in one way and 70 cm below. While filling the pit, first 70 cm above. Soil should be filled. After that about 50 kg. 70 cm below the village of rotted cow dung. The soil should be mixed well and filled. If there is a problem of termites in the soil, then 100 grams of chlorpyrifos powder per pit should be applied while mixing the fertilizer.
If the land is rocky, then the pebbles should be removed from the excavated soil and the pits should be filled by mixing the rotted manure. While filling the pit, it should be filled a little higher than the surface of the field so that even after rain, the surface of the pit and the field remains the same. The work of digging or filling pits must be done in the month of May-June before the monsoon.
In place of these pits, a peg should be buried, after which the pit can be identified. In the absence of monsoon, it is very important to irrigate 3-4 days after planting in a pit filled with manure and soil.
Planting Seedlings for Mango Cultivation
For planting orchards in mango cultivation, the plants brought from the plant should be dug out of the soil along with the soil (pindi) from all sides, so that the roots are least damaged. After this, by digging a pit equal to the pind in the middle of the pre-marked pits and then placing the plants in it, the soil should be filled with fingers from all sides.
Planting boards should be used to plant the trees in a straight line. After planting the plant, 60 cm should be used to irrigate its surroundings. A circular basin should be made. While planting a tree, it should also be kept in mind that neither the plant should go so low in the ground that the grafted part is also inside nor should it be so high that the plant gives roots. After planting saplings, irrigation should be done in the plate.
Harvesting and Pruning (in mango cultivation)
Pruning is necessary to give a definite shape to the plant from the beginning. Pruning is necessary if the branches of the tree are growing out of high depth. 75-100 cm of main stem. The branches should not be allowed to grow up to the height and 20 to 25 cm should be kept between the main branches in different directions. The branches that are crossing each other should be cut off.
But it should be kept in mind that harvesting should be done only when the branches (pencils) are of equal thickness as subsequent cutting may damage the tree. When the branches are close to each other, the plant may lack sunlight, which can affect fruiting.
Due to the ability to obtain nutrition from a large part of the land, it is possible to grow mango tree even in less fertile land, but the need for nutrients is necessary to increase the productivity and to preserve the fertility of the soil and to keep the plants healthy. The need for manure in the tree depends on the fertility of the soil and the age of the plants.
In this way, the amount of manure or nutrient is also different in different types of land. Fertilizing trees increases the chances of good quality fruiting every year. The following are the approved types of fertilizers on the basis of the research done and the experiences of the gardeners regarding the need to give fertilizers.
Quantity of Fertilizer for Mango Cultivation
Nutrient management in mango starts from the time of planting. While planting saplings, it has been told earlier about the use of manure in the pits. After planting, there is no need to fertilize for about one year, after that 100 grams of nitrogen (217 grams of urea), 50 grams of phosphorus (312 grams of single super phosphate) and 100 grams of potash (167 grams of murate of potash) per tree are applied every year.
This quantity of manure should be increased in proportion to the number of times per year for 10 years. In this way, the amount of fertilizer received per year for a 10-year-old tree will be 1 kg of nitrogen (kg of urea), 500 g of phosphorus (312 kg of single super phosphate) and 1 kg of potash (1.67 kg of murate of potash).
The same quantity should be kept in the trees of more than ten years of age, apart from this, for the physical properties of the land and other beneficial results, every year in the appropriate amount of rotten manure (20-30 kg) should be added. Fertilizers should be used in the drains made at a distance of 1.5 meters from the stem. Regular use of dry elements is not necessary, but in the event of their deficiency, it should be used in the soil and foliar spraying.
Foliar sprinkling of 3% potassium nitrate is beneficial for increasing the quality of fruits, besides adding 250 grams of azospirillum (organic manure) with 40 kg of dung manure, in July-August, a significant increase in production was found. is |
Fertilizer should be used only once, full part of it should be applied immediately after fruit harvesting (July). Use of chemical fertilizers should be done only in the condition of proper moisture in the soil, if the soil is dry, then fertilizer should be applied only after light irrigation.
Fertilizer application method for more cultivation of mango
Before applying fertilizer, weeds should be removed from the tree plate, leaving a little distance around the stem in the small plant, fertilizers and fertilizers should be mixed well by putting them in the ground. Similarly, in large plants, a groove (30 cm wide and 20-25 cm deep) should be used at a distance of 1.5 meters from the stem.
The amount and interval of water required in mango depends on the soil, climate (mainly temperature and rainfall) and age of the plants, irrigation is not required in monsoon. The need for regular irrigation is more in summer, in the first year of planting in the summer season, when the plants are small and their roots are not fully developed, at that time it is necessary to irrigate at an interval of 2-3 days.
Plants of 2-5 years of age should be watered at an interval of 4-5 days and those of 5-8 years of age should be watered at an interval of 10-15 days. After the trees are in full fruiting stage, 2-3 irrigations are necessary. Orchard should not be irrigated 2-3 months before flowering, generally intercropping is taken in the initial years of the garden. Irrigation system in such gardens should be done keeping in view the inter-cropping.